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长难句结构分析经典627句-1  

2008-02-20 16:13:27|  分类: 外语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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长难句结构分析经典627句 该文档包括以下内容: ★长难句结构分析最新经典100句★ ★精彩TOEFL句子结构100句★ ★1995-2002年考研长难句24句★ ★阅读难点关键句200句★ ★GRE难句分析经典134句★ ★胡敏长难句69句★

★ 精彩TOEFL句子结构100句★ 1. Typical of the grassland dwellers of the continent is the American antelope, or pronghorn. 美洲羚羊,或称叉角羚,是该大陆典型的草原动物。 2. Of the millions who saw Haley’s comet in 1986, how many people will live long enough to see it return in the twenty-first century? 1986年看见哈雷彗星的千百万人当中,有多少人能够长寿到足以目睹它在二十一世纪的回归呢? 3. Anthropologists have discovered that fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise are universally reflected in facial expressions. 人类学家们已经发现,恐惧,快乐,悲伤和惊奇都会行之于色,这在全人类是共通的。 4. Because of its irritating effect on humans, the use of phenol as a general antiseptic has been largely discontinued. 由于苯酚对人体带有刺激性作用,它基本上已不再被当作常用的防腐剂了。 5. In group to remain in existence, a profit-making organization must, in the long run, produce something consumers consider useful or desirable. 任何盈利组织若要生存,最终都必须生产出消费者可用或需要的产品。 6. The greater the population there is in a locality, the greater the need there is for water, transportation, and disposal of refuse. 一个地方的人口越多,其对水,交通和垃圾处理的需求就会越大。 7. It is more difficult to write simply, directly, and effectively than to employ flowery but vague expressions that only obscure one’s meaning. 简明,直接,有力的写作难于花哨,含混而意义模糊的表达。 8. With modern offices becoming more mechanized, designers are attempting to personalize them with warmer, less severe interiors. 随着现代办公室的日益自动化,设计师们正试图利用较为温暖而不太严肃的内部装饰来使其具有亲切感。 9. The difference between libel and slander is that libel is printed while slander is spoken. 诽谤和流言的区别在于前者是书面的,而后者是口头的。 10. The knee is the jointswheresthe thighbone meets the large bone of the lower leg. 膝盖是大腿骨和小腿胫的连接处。 11. Acids are chemical compounds that, in water solution, have a sharp taste, a corrosive action on metals, and the ability to turn certain blue vegetable dyes red. 酸是一种化合物,它在溶于水时具有强烈的气味和对金属的腐蚀性,并且能够使某些蓝色植物染料变红。 12. Billie Holiday’s reputation as a great jazz-blues singer rests on her ability to give emotional depth

to her songs. Billie Holiday’s作为一个爵士布鲁斯乐杰出歌手的名声建立在能够赋予歌曲感情深度的能力。 13. Essentially, a theory is an abstract, symbolic representation of what is conceived to be reality. 理论在本质上是对认识了的现实的一种抽象和符号化的表达。 14. Long before children are able to speak or understand a language, they communicate through facial expressions and by making noises. 儿童在能说或能听懂语言之前,很久就会通过面部表情和靠发出噪声来与人交流了。 15. Thanks to modern irrigation, crops now grow abundantly in areas swheres once nothing but cacti and sagebrush could live. 受当代灌溉(技术设施)之赐,农作物在原来只有仙人掌和荞属科植物才能生存的地方旺盛的生长。 16. The development of mechanical timepieces spurred the search for more accurate sundials with which to regulate them. 机械计时器的发展促使人们寻求更精确的日晷,以便校准机械计时器。 17. Anthropology is a science in that anthropologists use a rigorous set of methods and techniques to document observations that can be checked by others. 人类学是一门科学,因为人类学家采用一整套强有力的方法和技术来记录观测结果,而这样记录下来的观测结果是供他人核查的。 18. Fungi are important in the process of decay, which returns ingredients to the soil, enhances soil fertility, and decomposes animal debris. 真菌在腐化过程中十分重要,而腐化过程将化学物质回馈于土壤,提高其肥力,并分解动物粪便。 19. When it is struck, a tuning fork produces an almost pure tone, retaining its pitch over a long period of time. 音叉被敲击时,产生几乎纯质的音调,其音量经久不衰。 20. Although pecans are most plentiful in the southeastern part of the United States, they are found as far north as Ohio and Illinois. 虽然美洲山河桃树最集中于美国的东南部但是在北至俄亥俄州及伊利诺州也能看见它们。 21. Eliminating problems by transferring the blame to others is often called scapegoating. 用怪罪别人的办法来解决问题通常被称为寻找替罪羊。 22. The chief foods eaten in any country depend largely on what grows best in its climate and soil. 一个国家的主要食物是什么,大体取决于什么作物在其天气和土壤条件下生长得最好。 23. Over a very large number of trials, the probability of an event’s occurring is equal to the probability that it will not occur. 在大量的实验中,某一事件发生的几率等于它不发生的几率 24. Most substance contract when they freeze so that the density of a substance’s solid is higher than the density of its liquid. 大多数物质遇冷收缩,所以他们的密度在固态时高于液态。 25. The mechanism by which brain cells store memories is not clearly understood. 大脑细胞储存记忆的机理并不为人明白。 26. By the middle of the twentieth century, painters and sculptors in the United States had begun to exert a great worldwide influence over art. 到了二十一世纪中叶,美国画家和雕塑家开始在世界范围内对艺术产生重大影响。 27. In the eastern part of New Jersey lies the city of Elizabeth, a major shipping and manufacturing center. 伊丽莎白市,一个重要的航运和制造业中心,坐落于新泽西州的东部。

28. Elizabeth Blackwell, the first woman medical doctor in the United States, founded the New York Infirmary, an institution that has always had a completely female medical staff. Elizabeth Blackwell,美国第一个女医生,创建了员工一直为女性纽约诊所。 29. Alexander Graham Bell once told his family that he would rather be remembered as a teacher of the deaf than as the inventor of the telephone. Alexander Graham Bell曾告诉家人,他更愿意让后人记住他是聋子的老师,而非电话的发明者。 30. Because its leaves remain green long after being picked, rosemary became associated with the idea of remembrance. 采摘下的迷迭香树叶常绿不衰,因此人们把迷迭香树与怀念联系在一起。 31. Although apparently rigid, bones exhibit a degree of elasticity that enables the skeleton to withstand considerable impact. 骨头看起来是脆硬的,但它也有一定的弹性,使得骨骼能够承受相当的打击。 32. That xenon could not form chemical compounds was once believed by scientists. 科学家曾相信:氙气是不能形成化合物的。 33. Researchsintosthe dynamics of storms is directed toward improving the ability to predict these events and thus to minimize damage and avoid loss of life. 对风暴动力学的研究是为了提高风暴预测从而减少损失,避免人员伤亡。 34. The elimination of inflation would ensure that the amount of money used in repaying a loan would have the same value as the amount of money borrowed. 消除通货膨胀应确保还贷的钱应与所贷款的价值相同。 35. Futurism, an early twentieth-century movement in art, rejected all traditions and attempted to glorify contemporary life by emphasizing the machine and motion. 未来主义,二十世纪早期的一个艺术思潮。拒绝一切传统,试图通过强调机械和动态来美化生活。 36. One of the wildest and most inaccessible parts of the United States is the Everglades swheres wildlife is abundant and largely protected. Everglades是美国境内最为荒凉和人迹罕至的地区之一,此处有大量的野生动植物而且大多受(法律)保护。 37. Lucretia Mott’s influence was so significant that she has been credited by some authorities as the originator of feminism in the United States. Lucretia Mott’s的影响巨大,所以一些权威部门认定她为美国女权运动的创始人。 38. The activities of the international marketing researcher are frequently much broader than those of the domestic marketer. 国际市场研究者的活动范围常常较国内市场研究者广阔。 39. The continental divide refers to an imaginary line in the North American Rockies that divides the waters flowingsintosthe Atlantic Ocean from those flowingsintosthe Pacific. 大陆分水岭是指北美洛矶山脉上的一道想象线,该线把大西洋流域和太平洋流域区分开来。 40. Studies of the gravity field of the Earth indicate that its crust and mantle yield when unusual weight is placed on them. 对地球引力的研究表明,在不寻常的负荷之下地壳和地幔会发生位移。 41. The annual worth of Utah’s manufacturing is greater than that of its mining and farming combined. 尤它州制造业的年产值大于其工业和农业的总和。 42. The wallflower is so called because its weak stems often grow on walls and along stony cliffs for support.

墙花之所以叫墙花,是因为其脆弱的枝干经常要靠墙壁或顺石崖生长,以便有所依附。 43. It is the interaction between people, rather than the events that occur in their lives, that is the main focus of social psychology. 社会心理学的主要焦点是人与人之间的交往,而不是他们各自生活中的事件。 44. No social crusade aroused Elizabeth Williams’enthusiasm more than the expansion of educational facilities for immigrants to the United States. 给美国的新移民增加教育设施比任何社会运动都更多的激发了Elizabeth Williams的热情。 45. Quails typically have short rounded wings that enable them to springsintosfull flight instantly when disturbed in their hiding places. 典型的鹌鹑都长有短而圆的翅膀,凭此他们可以在受惊时一跃而起,飞离它们的躲藏地。 46. According to anthropologists, the earliest ancestors of humans that stood upright resembled chimpanzees facially, with sloping foreheads and protruding brows. 根据人类学家的说法,直立行走的人的鼻祖面部轮廓与黑猩猩相似,额头后倾,眉毛突出。 47. Not until 1866 was the fully successful transatlantic cable finally laid. 直到1866年第一条横跨大西洋的电缆才完全成功的架通。 48. In his writing, John Crowe Ransom describes what he considers the spiritual barrenness of society brought about by science and technology. John Crowe Ransom在他的著作中描述了他认为是由科学技术给社会带来的精神贫困。 49. Children with parents whose guidance is firm, consistent, and rational are inclined to possess high levels of self-confidence. 父母的教导如果坚定,始终如一和理性,孩子就有可能充满自信。 50. The ancient Hopewell people of North America probably cultivated corn and other crops, but hunting and gathering were still of critical importance in their economy. 北美远古的Hopewell人很可能种植了玉米和其他农作物,但打猎和采集对他们的经济贸易仍是至关重要的。 51. Using many symbols makes it possible to put a large amount of information on a single map. 使用多种多样的符号可以在一张地图里放进大量的信息。 52. Anarchism is a term describing a cluster of doctrines and attitudes whose principal uniting feature is the belief that government is both harmful and unnecessary. 无政府主义这个词描述的是一堆理论和态度,它们的主要共同点在于相信政府是有害的,没有必要的。 53. Probably no man had more effect on the daily lives of most people in the Untied States than did Henry Ford a pioneer in automobile production. 恐怕没有谁对大多数美国人的日常生活影响能超过汽车生产的先驱亨利.福特。 54. The use of well-chosen nonsense words makes possible the testing of many basic hypotheses in the field of language learning. 使用精心挑选的无意义词汇,可以检验语言学科里许多基本的假定。 55. The history of painting is a fascinating chain of events that probably began with the very first pictures ever made. 油画历史是由一连串的迷人事件组成,其源头大概可以上溯到最早的图画。 56. Perfectly matched pearls, strungsintosa necklace, bring a far higher price than the same pearls told individually. 相互般配的珍珠,串成一条项链,就能卖到比单独售出好得多的价钱。 57. During the eighteenth century, Little Turtle was chief of the Miami tribe whose territory became what is now Indiana and Ohio.

十八世纪时,“小乌龟”是迈阿密部落的酋长,该部落的地盘就是今天的印第安那州和俄亥俄州。 58. Among almost seven hundred species of bamboo, some are fully grown at less than a foot high, while others can grow three feet in twenty-four hours. 在竹子的近七百个品种中,有的全长成还不到一英尺,有的却能在二十四小时内长出三英尺。 59. Before staring on a sea voyage, prudent navigators learn the sea charts, study the sailing directions, and memorize lighthouse locations to prepare themselves for any conditions they might encounter. 谨慎的航海员在出航前,会研究航向,记录的灯塔的位置,以便对各种可能出现的情况做到有备无患。 60. Of all the economically important plants, palms have been the least studied. 在所有的经济作物中,棕榈树得到的研究最少。 61. Buyers and sellers should be aware of new developments in technology can and does affect marketing activities. 购买者和销售者都应该留意技术的新发展,原因很简单,因为技术能够并且已经影响着营销活动。 62. The application of electronic controls made possible by the microprocessor and computer storage have multiplied the uses of the modern typewriter. 电脑储存和由于电子微处理机得以实现的电控运用成倍的增加了现代打字机的功能。 63. The human skeleton consists of more than two hundred bones bound together by tough and relatively inelastic connective tissues called ligaments. 人类骨骼有二百多块骨头组成,住些骨头石油坚韧而相对缺乏弹性的,被称为韧带的结蒂组连在一起。 64. The pigmentation of a pearl is influenced by the type of oyster in which it develops and by the depth, temperature, and the salt content of the water in which the oyster lives. 珍珠的色泽受到作为其母体牡蛎种类及牡蛎生活水域的深度,温度和含盐度的制约 65. Although mockingbirds superbly mimic the songs and calls of many birds, they can nonetheless be quickly identified as mockingbirds by certain aural clues. 尽管模仿鸟学很多种鸟的鸣叫声惟妙惟肖,但人类还是能够依其声音上的线索很快识别它们。 66. Not only can walking fish live out of water, but they can also travel short distances over land. 鲇鱼不仅可以离开水存活,还可以在岸上短距离移动。 67. Scientists do not know why dinosaurs became extinct, but some theories postulate that changers in geography, climate, and sea levels were responsible. 科学家不知道恐龙为何绝种了,但是一些理论推断是地理,气候和海平面的变化造成的。 68. The science of horticulture, in which the primary concerns are maximum yield and superior quality, utilizes information derived from other sciences. 主要目的在于丰富和优质的农艺学利用了其他科学的知识。 69. Snow aids farmers by keeping heart in the lower ground levels, thereby saving the seeds from freezing. 雪对农民是一种帮助,因为它保持地层土壤的温度,使种子不致冻死。 70. Even though the precise qualities of hero in literary words may vary over time, the basic exemplary function of the hero seems to remain constant. 历代文学作品中的英雄本色虽各有千秋,但其昭世功力却是恒古不变的。 71. People in prehistoric times created paints by grinding materials such as plants and claysintospower and then adding water. 史前的人们制造颜料是将植物和泥土等原料磨成粉末,然后加水。 72. Often very annoying weeds, goldenrods crowd out less hardy plants and act as hosts to many insect pests.

黄菊花通常令人生厌,它挤走不那么顽强的植物,并找来很多害虫。 73. Starting around 7000 B.C., and for the next four thousand years, much of the Northern Hemisphere experienced temperatures warmer than at present. 大约从公元前七千年开始,在四千年当中,北半球的温度比现在高。 74. When Henry Ford first sought financial backing for making cars, the very notion of farmers and clerks owning automobiles was considered ridiculous. 当亨利.福特最初制造汽车为寻求资金支持时,农民和一般职员也能拥有汽车的想法被认为是可笑的。 75. Though once quite large, the population of the bald eagle across North America has drastically declined in the past forty years. 北美秃头鹰的数量一度很多,但在近四十年中全北美的秃头鹰数量急剧下降。 76. The beaver chews down trees to get food and material with which to build its home. 水獭啃倒树木,以便取食物并获得造窝的材料。 77. Poodles were once used as retrievers in duck hunting, but the American Kennel Club does not consider them sporting dogs because they are now primarily kept as pets. 长卷毛狗曾被用作猎鸭时叼回猎物的猎犬,但是美国Kennel Club却不承认它们为猎犬,因为它们现在大多数作为宠物饲养。 78. As a result of what is now known in physics and chemistry, scientists have been able to make important discoveries in biology and medicine. 物理学和化学的一个成果是使得科学家们能在生物学和医学上获得重大发现。 79. The practice of making excellent films based on rather obscure novels has been going on so long in the United States as to constitute a tradition. 根据默默无闻的小说制作优秀影片在美国由来已久,已经成为传统。 80. Since the consumer considers the best fruit to be that which is the most attractive, the grower must provide products that satisfy the discerning eye. 因为顾客认为最好的水果应该看起来也是最漂亮的,所以种植者必须提供能满足挑剔眼光的产品。 81. Television the most pervasive and persuasive of modern technologies, marked by rapid change and growth, is movingsintosa new era, an era of extraordinary sophistication and versatility, which promises to reshape our lives and our world. 电视,这项从迅速变化和成长为标志的最普及和最有影响力的现代技术,正在步入一个新时代,一个极为成熟和多样化的时代,这将重塑我们的生活和世界。 82. Television is more than just an electronics; it is a means of expression, as well as a vehicle for communication, and as such becomes a powerful tool for reaching other human beings. 电视不仅仅是一件电器;它是表达的手段和交流的载体并因此成为联系他人的有力工具。 83. Even more shocking is the fact that the number and rate of imprisonment have more than doubled over the past twenty years, and recidivism------that is the rate for rearrest------is more than 60 percent. 更让人吃惊的事实是监禁的数目和比例在过去的二十年中翻了一番还有余,以及累犯率——即再次拘押的比例——为百分之六十强。 84. His teaching began at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but William Rainey Harper lured him to the new university of Chicago, swhereshe remained officially for exactly a generation andswhereshis students in advanced composition found him terrifyingly frigid in the classroom but sympathetic and understanding in their personal conferences. 他的教书生涯始于麻省理工学院,但是William Rainey Harper把他吸引到了新成立的芝加哥大学。他在那里正式任职长达整整一代人的时间。他的高级作文课上的学生觉得他在课上古板得可怕,但私下

交流却富有同情和理解。 85. The sloth pays such little attention to its personal hygiene that green algae grow on its coarse hair and communities of a parasitic moth live in the depths of its coat producing caterpillars which graze on its mouldy hair. Its muscles are such that it is quits incapable of moving at a speed of over a kilometer an hour even over the shortest distances and the swiftest movement it can make is a sweep of its hooked arm. 树獭即不讲究卫生,以至于它粗糙的毛发上生出绿苔,成群的寄生蛾生长在它的皮毛深处,变成毛毛虫,并以它的脏毛为食。她的肌肉不能让他哪怕在很短的距离以内以每小时一公里的速度移动。它能做的最敏捷的动作就是挥一挥它弯曲的胳膊。 86. Artificial flowers are used for scientific as well as for decorative purposes. They are made from a variety of materials, such as way and glass, so skillfully that they can scarcely be distinguished from natural flowers. 人造花卉即可用于科学目的,也可用于装饰目的,它们可以用各种各样的材料制成,臂如蜡和玻璃;其制作如此精巧,几乎可以以假乱真。 87. Three years of research at an abandoned coal mine in Argonne, Illinois, have resulted in findings that scientists believe can help reclaim thousands of mine disposal sites that scar the coal-richregions of the United States. 在伊利诺州Angonne市的一个废弃煤矿的三年研究取得了成果,科学家们相信这些成果可以帮助改造把美国产煤区弄得伤痕累累的数千个旧煤场。 88. When the persuading and the planning for the western railroads had finally been completed, the really challenging task remained: the dangerous, sweaty, backbreaking, brawling business of actually building the lines. 当有关西部铁路的说服和规划工作终于完成后,真正艰难的任务还没有开始;即危险,吃力,需要伤筋动骨和吵吵嚷嚷的建造这些铁路的实际工作。 89. Because of the space crunch, the Art Museum has become increasingly cautious in considering acquisitions and donations of art, in some cases passing up opportunities to strengthen is collections. 由于空间不足,艺术博物馆在考虑购买和接受捐赠的艺术品是越来越慎重,有些情况下放弃其进一步改善收藏的机会。 90. The United States Constitution requires that President be a natural-born citizen, thirty-five years of age or older, who has lived in the United States for a minimum of fourteen years. 美国宪法要求总统是生于美国本土的公民,三十五岁以上,并且在美国居住了至少十四年。 91. Arid regions in the southwestern United States have become increasingly inviting playgrounds for the growing number of recreation seekers who own vehicles such as motorcycles or powered trail bikes and indulge in hill-climbing contests or in caving new trails in the desert. .美国西部的不毛之地正成为玩耍的地方,对越来越多拥有摩托车或越野单车类车辆的,喜欢放纵于爬坡比赛或开辟新的沙漠通道的寻欢作乐者具有不断增长的吸引力。 92. Stone does decay, and so tools of long ago have remained when even the bones of the man who made them have disappeared without trace. 石头不会腐烂,所以以前的(石器)工具能保存下来,虽然它们的制造者已经消失的无影无踪 93. Insects would make it impossible for us to live in the world; they would devour all our crops and kill our flocks and herds, if it were not for the protection we get from insect-eating animals. 昆虫就将会使我们无法在这个世界上居住;如果我们没有受到以昆虫为食的动物的保护,昆虫就会吞嚼掉我们所有的庄稼并杀死我们饲养的禽兽。 94. It is true that during their explorations they often faced difficulties and dangers of the most

perilous nature, equipped in a manner which would make a modern climber shudder at the thought, but they did not go out of their way to court such excitement. 确实,他们在探险中遇到了极具威胁性的困难和危险,而他们的装备会让一个现代登山者想一想都会浑身颤栗。不过他们并不是刻意去追求刺激的。 95. There is only one difference between an old man and a young one: the young man has a glorious future before him and old one has a splendid future behind him: and maybe that is swheresthe rub is. 老人和年轻人之间只有一个区别:年轻人的前面有辉煌的未来,老年人灿烂的未来却已在它们身后。这也许就是困难之所在。 96. I find young people exciting. They have an air of freedom, and they have not a dreary commitment to mean ambitions or love comfort. They are not anxious social climbers, and they have no devotion to material things. 我们位年强人振奋。它们带有自由的气息,他们不会为狭隘的野心和贪婪享受而孜孜以求。他们不是焦虑的向上爬的人,他们不会对物质性的东西难舍难分。 97. I am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates goodwill between the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one another at football or cricket, they would have no inclination to meet on the battlefield. 每次我听说体育运动能够在国家间建立起友好感情,说世界各地的普通人只要能在足球场或板球场上相遇就会没有兴趣在战场上相遇的话,我都倍感诧异。 98. It is impossible to say simply for the fun and exercise: as soon as the question of prestige arises, as soon as you feel that you and some larger unit will be disgraced if you lose, the most savage combative instincts are around. 没有可能仅仅为了娱乐或锻炼而运动:一旦有了问题,一旦你觉得你输了你和你所属团体会有失体面时,你最野蛮的好斗本能就会被激发出来。 99. It has been found that certain bats emit squeaks and by receiving the echoes, they can locate and steer clear of obstacles------or locate flying insects on which they feed. This echo-location in bats is often compared with radar, the principle of which is similar. 人们已经发现,某些蝙蝠发出尖叫声并靠接受回响来锁定和避免障碍物——或者找到它们赖以为生的昆虫。蝙蝠这种回响定位法常拿来和原理与之很相近似的雷达相比。 100. As the time and cost of making a clip drop to a few days and a few hundred dollars, engineers may soon be free to let their imaginations soar without being penalized by expensive failure. 随着芯片制造时间和费用降低到了几天和几百美元,工程师们可能很快可以任他们的想象驰骋而不会被昂贵的失败所惩罚。 精彩TOEFL句子结构100句是俞敏洪老师从上百套真题中提炼而出。我当时拿到这一单页时是在1998年4月,一个北京的同学给我寄去的,远离北京,在南京拒绝抱托福班,所以北京朋友的一张单页来自新东方,当时让我很激动,我也很重视,我将100句背的滚瓜烂熟,相融相通,托福的语法结构问题不再是我的障碍。现在新东方的托福教材不断增加新内容,但我始终坚持精彩TOEFL句子结构100句,绝对精彩。

★长难句结构分析最新经典100句★ 1. The American economic system is. organized around a basically private-enterprise, market-oriented economy in which consumers largely determine what shall be produced by spending their money in the marketplace for those goods and services that they want most.

[参考译文]美国的经济是以基本的私有企业和市场导向经济为架构的,在这种经济中,消费者很大程度上通过在市场上为那些他们最想要的货品和服务付费来决定什么应该被制造出来。 2. Thus, in the American economic system it is the demand of individual consumers, coupled with the desire of businessmen to maximize profits and the desire of individuals to maximize their incomes, that together determine what shall be produced and how resources are used to produce it. [参考译文]因此,在美国的经济体系中,个体消费者的需求与商人试图最大化其利润的欲望和个人想最大化其收入效用的欲望相结合,一起决定了什么应该被制造,以及资源如何被用来制造它们。 3. If, on the other hand, producing more of a commodity results in reducing its cost, this will tend to increase the supply offered by seller-producers, which in turn will lower the price and permit more consumers to buy the product. [参考译文]另一方面,如果大量制造某种商品导致其成本下降,那么这就有可能增加卖方和制造商能提供的供给,而这也就会反过来降低价格并允许更多的消费者购买产品。 4. In the American economy, the concept of private property embraces not only the ownership of productive resources but also certain rights, including the right to determine the price of a product or to make a free contract with another private individual. [参考译文]在美国经济中,私有财产的概念不仅包含对生产资源的所有权,也指其他一些特定的权利,如确定一个产品价格和与另一个私人个体(经济单位)自由签定合同的权利。 5. At the same time these computers record which hours are busiest and which employers are the most efficient, allowing personnel and staffing assignments to be made accordingly. And they also identify preferred customers for promotional campaigns. [参考译文]同时这些计算机记录下哪些时间是最忙的,哪些员工工作效率最高,这样就能相应地做出人员人事安排。而且它们(计算机)也能为促销活动找到那些拥有优先权的顾客。 6. Numerous other commercial enterprises, from theaters to magazine publishers, from gas and electric utilities to milk processors, bring better and more efficient services to consumers through the use of computers. [参考译文]不计其数的其他商业企业,从剧院到杂志出版商,从公用燃气电力设施到牛奶处理厂,都通过计算机的使用给消费者带来更好、更有效率的服务。 7. Exceptional children are different in some significant way from others of the same age For these children to develop to their full adult potential, their education must be adapted to those differences. [参考译文]残疾儿童在许多关键方面都与其同龄人不同。为了让这些孩子发展其全部的成人后的潜能, 他们的教育必须适应这些不同。 8. The great interest in exceptional children shown in public education over the past three decades indicates the strong feeling in our society that all citizens, whatever their special conditions, deserve the opportunity to fully develop their capabilities. [参考译文]在过去的30年中,公共教育中显示的对残疾儿童的巨大关注表明了我们社会中的一种中强烈的情绪,那就是所有的公民,不管其情况有多特殊,都应享有充分发展其能力的机会。 9. It serves directly to assist a rapid distribution of goods at reasonable price, thereby establishing a firm home market and so making it possible to provide for export at competitive prices. [参考译文]它(广告)能够直接帮助货物以比较合理的价格被迅速分销出去,因此可以(使公司)建立一个坚固的国内市场,同时也使以具有竞争力的价格提供出口变得可能。 10. Apart from the fact that twenty-seven acts of Parliament govern the terms of advertising, no regular advertiser dare promote a product that fails to live up to the promise of his advertisements. [参考译文]除去议会有27件法案来规范广告的条件,没有任何一个正式的广告商敢于推销一种商品却不能兑现其在广告中的承诺。

11. If its message were confined merely to information and that in itself would be difficult if not impossible to achieve, for even a detail such as the choice of the color of a shirt is subtly persuasive-advertising wound be so boring that no one wound pay any attention. [参考译文]如果其信息只被局限于告知一一就广告而言,如果这不是完全不可能达到的,也是非常难做的,因为即便是一个诸如衬衫的颜色的选择这样的细节都会具有微妙的说服意味,那么广告就会如此地乏味以至于没有人会关注它。 12. The workers who gets a promotion, the student whose grades improve, the foreigner who learns a new language-all these are examples of people who have measurable results to show for there efforts. [参考译文]得到了升迁的工人们,成绩进步的学生,学会了一门新语言的外国人一一这些都是那些有可衡量的结果宋显示其努力的人们的例证。 13. As families move away from their stable community, their friends of many years, their extended family relationships, the informal flow of information is cut off, and with it the confidence that information will be available when needed and will be trustworthy and reliable. [参考译文]随着家庭离开他们原来稳定的社区,离开他们多年的朋友和扩展的家庭关系,非正式的信息流动被切断了,随之而去的是对在需要时能获得可靠和值得信赖的信息的信心。 14. The individual now has more information available than any generation, and the task of finding that one piece of information relevant to his or her specific problem is complicated, time--consuming, and sometimes even overwhelming. [参考译文]现在每个人能够得到的信息比任何时代的人都多,而找到与他/她的特定问题相关的那一点信息的任务不仅复杂、耗时,有时甚至令人难以招架。 15. Expertise can be shared world wide through teleconferencing, and problems in dispute can be settled without the participants leaving their homes and/or jobs to travel to a distant conference site. [参考译文]通过远程会议,专家知识可以在全世界范围内被分享,而争论的问题能够得到解决,同时相关人员也不必离开他们的家庭或工作跑到一个遥远的开会地点。 16. The current passion for making children compete against their classmates or against the clock produces a two-layer system, in which competitive A-types seem in some way better than their B type fellows. [参考译文]现在这种让孩子们和其同学或时间竞争的热情导致了一个双层结构,在这个结构里面善于竞争的A类好像在某个方面要比他们B类的同辈更胜一筹。 17. While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you and your "wares" and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner. [参考译文]在跟你谈话的时候,可能成为你的雇主的人就一直在衡量你的教育、经验和其他资格是不是值得他雇用你,而你的"商品"和能力一定要以一种有条不紊而且合情合理的相互关联的方式被展示出来。 18. The Corporation will survive as a publicly funded broadcasting organization, at least for the time being, but its role, its size and its programs are now the subject of a nation wide debate in Britain. [参考译文]英国广播公司将作为一个公共基金支持的广播组织存在下来,至少目前会这样,但是它的角色、它的规模和它的节目现在在英国成了全国上下的讨论话题。 19. The debate was launched by the Government, which invited anyone with an opinion of the BBC--including ordinary listeners and viewer to say what was good or bad about the Corporation, and even whether they thought it was worth keeping. [参考译文]这场辩论是由政府发动的,政府请任何一个对英国广播公司有意见的人一包括普通的听众和观众一来说说这个公司好在哪里或坏在哪里,甚至要说说他们是否认为这个公司值得被保留下来。 20. The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large profess signal element

and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders. [参考译文]这种变化通过引入许多的专业因素从而适应了这个新时代的技术要求,并且它(这种变化)防止了效率的降低。这种效率的降低在精力充沛的创业者之后的第二代和第三代人(领导公司)的时候,经常会毁掉那些家族公司的财富。 21. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners: and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business. [参考译文]这样巨大而非个人的对资金和产业的操纵极大地增加了股东的数量和他们作为一个阶级的重要性,这是国家生活中代表不负责任的财富的一个因素,这种财富不但远离了土地和土地拥有者的责任,而且几乎同样与公司的负责任的管理毫无关系。 22. Towns like Bournemouth and East bourne sprang up to house large "comfortable" classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders' meeting to dictate their orders to the management. [参考译文]像伯恩茅斯和伊斯特本这样的城镇的涌现是为了给那些数量很多的"舒适"阶级提供居住场所。这些人依赖于其丰厚收入而不工作,他们除了分红和偶尔参加一下股东大会,向管理层口授一下自己的命令之外,跟社会的其他阶层毫无瓜葛。 23. The "shareholders" as such had no knowledge of the lives, thoughts or needs of the workmen employed by the company in which he held shares, and his influence on the relations of capital and labor was not good. [参考译文]这样的"股东"对他拥有股份的公司所雇用的工人们的生活、思想和需求一无所知,而且他们对劳资双方的关系都不会产生积极的影响。 24. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away. [参考译文]代表公司的花钱雇来的经理与工人及其需求的关系更加直接,但是就连他对工人们也没有那种熟识的私人之间的了解。而在现在正在消失的古老家族公司的那种更加家长式的制度下的雇主们却常常对他们的工人有这样的私人关系。 25. Among the many shaping factors, I would single out the country's excellent elementary schools: a labor force that welcomed the new technology; the practice of giving premiums to inventors; and above all the American genius for nonverbal, "spatial" thinking about things technological. [参考译文]在许多形成因素当中,我将挑选出这些:这个国家优秀的小学教育:欢迎新技术的劳动者们:奖励发明者的做法;而且最重要的是美国人在对那些技术性事物的非言语的、"空间性的"思考方面的天赋。 26. As Eugene Ferguson has pointed out, "A technologist thinks about objects that can not be reduced to unambiguous verbal descriptions: they are dealt with in his mind by a visual, nonverbal process...The designer and the inventor.., are able to assemble and manipulate in their minds devices that as yet do not exist". [参考译文]正如尤金·弗格森所指出的那样:"一个技术专家思考那些不能被简化成能被清楚的语言描述的东西。这些东西在他的思维中是通过一种视觉的、非语言表述的过程宋处理的……设计者和发明者……能够在他们的脑中装配并操作那些还不存在的装置。" 27. Robert Fulton once wrote, "The mechanic should sit down among levers, screws, wedges, wheel, etc, like a poet among the letters of the alphabet, considering them as an exhibition of his thoughts, in which

a new arrangement transmits a new idea". [参考译文]罗伯特·法欧特曾经这样写到:"一个技师会坐在杠杆、螺丝钉、楔子、轮子等等当中,就像一个诗人沉浸在字母表的字母中,把这些字母看成自己思想的展示,在这样的展示中,每种新的次序安排都传达了--种新的思想。" 28. In the last three chapters, he takes off his gloves and gives the creationists a good beating. He describes their programs and, tactics, and, for those unfamiliar with the ways of creationists, the extent of their deception and distortion may come as an unpleasant surprise. [参考译文]在最后三章中,他脱下手套,将神造论者好好地揍了一顿。他描述了他们的活动和战术,而且,对于那些对神造论者的做事方式刁;熟悉的人来说,神造论者的欺骗和扭曲事实的程度可能会令这些人有一种不快的诧异。 29. On the dust jacket of this fine book, Stephen Jay Gould says: "This book stands for reason itself." And so it does-and all wound be well were reason the only judge in the creationism/evolution debate. [参考译文]在这本杰出的书的外纸封面上,史蒂芬·杰伊·古尔德写道:"这本书本身就代表理性。"而它确实是这样的--而且如果理性成为神造论/地化论之间的辩论中的惟一评判标准的话,一切就都好办了。 30. After six months of arguing and final 16 hours of hot parliamentary debates, Australia's Northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die. [参考译文] 经过了六个月的争论以及最后16个小时激烈的议会辩论,澳大利亚北部地区成了世界上第一个允许医生终止希望死去的绝症病人生命的立法当局。 31. Some have breathed sighs of relief, others, including churches, right-to-life groups and the Australian Medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill and the haste of its passage. But the tide is unlikely to turn back. [参考译文]一些机构终于松了一口气,但是其他一些机构,包括教堂,倡导生命之权的团体和澳大利亚医学协会,尖锐地抨击这个法案,指责法案的通过过于匆忙。但是大势已定,不可逆转。 32. In Australia- where an aging population, life-extending technology and changing community attitudes have all played their part other states are going to consider making a similar law to deal with euthanasia. [参考译文]在澳大利亚--人口老龄化,延长寿命的技术和变化看的社会态度,这些因素都在发挥作用一一其他的州也会考虑制定相似的关于安乐死的法律。 33. There are, of course, exceptions. Small--minded officials, rude waiters, and ill mannered taxi drivers are hardly unknown in the US. Yet it is an observation made so frequently that it deserves comment. [参考译文]当然,例外是存在的。在美国,心胸狭窄的官员,粗鲁的传者,和没有礼貌的出租车司机也并不少见。然而人们常常得出这样的观察意见,这使得它值得被讨论一下。 34. We live in a society in which the medicinal and social use of substances (drugs) is pervasive: an aspirin to quiet a headache, some wine to be sociable, coffee to get going in the morning, a cigarette for the nerves. [参考译文]我们生活在一种药品(毒品)的医学用途和社会用途都很广泛的社会里:一片用来止头痛的阿斯匹林,一些用来社交的葡萄酒,早上自己提提神所喝的咖啡,一支用来定神的香烟。 35. Dependence is marked first by an increased tolerance, with more and more of the substance required to produce the desired effect, and then by the appearance of unpleasant with drawal symptoms when the substance is discontinued. [参考译文]对药品的依赖性首先表现为不断增长的耐药量,要产生想得到的效果所需要的药品剂量越来越大,然后表现为当停止用药后,令人不快的停药症状的出现。 36. "Is this what you intended to accomplish with your careers?" Senator Robert Dole asked Time Warner executives last week. "You have sold your souls, but must you corrupt our nation and threaten our

children as well?" [参考译文]上星期参议员罗博特多尔质问时代华纳公司的高级管理人员们:"难道这就是你们希望能够成就的事业?你们已经出卖了自己的灵魂,但是难道你们还非要腐化我们的国家,威胁我们的孩子们吗?" 37. "The test of any democratic society, he wrote in a Wall Street Journal column', "lies not in how well it can control expression but in whether it gives freedom of thought and expression the widest possible latitude, however disputable or irritating the results may sometimes be..." [参考译文]"对任何一个民主社会的考验,"他在《华尔街杂志》的一个专栏文章中写到,"不在于它能够多有效地控制各种意见的表达,而在于这个社会是否能给予思考和表达的尽可能广泛的自由,不管有时候这种结果是多么的富有争议或令人不快…" 38. During the discussion of rock singing verses at last month's stockholders' meeting, Levin asserted that "music is not the cause of society's ills" and even cited his son, a teacher in the Bronx, New York, who uses rap to communicate with students. [参考译文]在-上个月的股东大会上关于摇滚歌词的讨论中,莱文宣称说:"音乐不是社会问题的原因",他甚至还以他的儿子为例。他的儿子是纽约州布朗克斯的一个教师,并用说唱音乐与学生们进行沟通。 39. Much of the language used to describe monetary policy, such as "steering the economy to a soft landing" of "a touch on the brakes" , makes it sound like a precise science. Nothing could be further from the truth. [参考译文]有很多用于描述货币政策的词汇,例如"轻踩刹车"以"操纵经济软着陆",使货币政策听起来像是一门精确的科学。没有什么比这更远离实际情况的了。 40. Economists have been particularly surprised by favorable inflation figures in Britain and the United States, since, conventional measures suggest that both economies, and especially America's, have little productive slack. [参考译文]经济学家们对英国和美国的有利的通货膨胀数据尤其感到惊讶,因为传统的计量方法显示两国的经济,特别是美国的经济,几乎没有生产萧条的时候。 41. The most thrilling explanation is, unfortunately, a little defective. Some economists argue that powerful structural changes in the world have upended the old economic models that were based upon the historical link between growth and inflation. [参考译文]很不幸,这最令人震惊的解释有一点缺陷。一些经济学家认为世界经济结构的强有力的变化已经结束了那个以经济增长和通货膨胀的历史关联为基础的旧的经济模式。 42. The Aswan Dam, for example, stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left-all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity. [参考译文]例如,阿斯旺大坝使得尼罗河不再洪水泛滥,但是它也夺去了埃及以前所享有的洪水留下的肥沃淤泥--这些换宋的就是这么个疾病滋生的水库,现在这个水库积满了淤泥,几乎不能发电了。 43. New ways of organizing the workplace--all that re-engineering and downsizing--are only one contribution to the overall productivity of an economy, which is driven by many other factors such as joint investment in equipment and machinery, new technology, and investment in education and training, [参考译文]企业重组的新方法--所有那些重新设计、缩小规模的做法--只是对一个经济的整体生产力做出了一方面的贡献。这种经济还受许多其他因素的驱动,比如结合设备和机械上的投资、新技术,以及在教育和培训上的投资。 44. His colleague, Michael Beer, says that far too many companies have applied re-engineering in a mechanistic fashion, chopping out costs without giving sufficient thought to long-term profitability. [参考译文]他的同事迈克尔·比尔说,有太多的公司已经用一种机械的方式实行公司内部的重新设计,在没有充分考虑长期赢利的能力下削减了成本。

45. Defenders of science have also voiced their concerns at meetings such as "The Flight from Science and Reason" , held in New York City in 1995, and "Science in the Age of (Mis) information, which assembled last June near Buffalo. [参考译文]科学卫士们在会议上也表述了他们的关注,比如1995年在纽约市举行的 "逃离科学与理性"会议,以及去年6 月在布法罗附近召开的"(错误)信息时代的科学"会议。 46. A survey of news stories in 1996 reveals that the antiscience tag has been attached to many other groups as well, from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research. [参考译文]一项关于1996年新闻报道的调查显示,反科学的标签还可以贴在许多其他团体身上,从提倡消灭最后存留的天花病毒的权威机构,到鼓吹削减基础研究经费的共和党人(都被贴上了反科学的标签)。 47. The 'true enemies of science, argues Paul Ehrllch of Stanford University, a pioneer of environmental studies, are those who question the evidence supporting global warming, the depletion of the ozone layer and other consequences of industrial growth. [参考译文]环境研究的先驱、斯坦福大学的保罗·厄尔里西认为,科学真正的敌人是那些对支持全球变暖、臭氧层损耗以及工业发展的其他后果的证据提出置疑的人。 48. This development--and its strong implication for US politics and economy in years ahead--has enthroned the South as America's most densely populated region for the first time in the history of the nation's head counting. [参考译文]这种发展--以及其对美国政治、经济在未来几年的潜在的强有力的影响一一使得南部在全国人口普查中有史以来首次成为美国人口最密集的地区。 49. Often they choose--and still are choosing--somewhat colder climates such as Oregon, Idaho and Alaska in order to escape smog crime and other plagues of urbanization in the Golden State. [参考译文]他们常常选择--现在依然这样选择--居住在那些气候较为寒冷的地区, 比如俄勒冈、爱达荷,还有阿拉斯加,为的是逃避烟雾、犯罪,以及"金州"(加利福尼亚)城市化进程中的其他问题。 50. As a result, California's growth rate dropped during the 1970's, to 18.5 percent--little more than two thirds the 1960's growth figure and considerably below that of other Western states. [参考译文]结果,加利福尼亚的人口增长率在20世纪70年代时下降到了18.5%一稍高于60年代增长率的三分之二,大大低于西部其他各州。 51. Unlike most of the world's volcanoes, they are not always found at the boundaries of the great drifting plates that make up the earth's surface; on the contrary, many of them lie deep in the interior of a plate. [参考译文]跟世界上的大多数火山不同的是,它们(热点)并不总是在由构成地球表面巨大漂流板块之间的边界上出现;相反,它们中有许多位于一个板块较纵深的内部。 52. The relative motion of the plates carrying these continents has been constructed in detail, but the motion of the plates with respect to another cannot readily be translated into motion with respect to the earth's interior. [参考译文]携带这些大陆板块的相对运动已经能够被详细地表述出来,但是这些板块相对于另一些板块的运动还不能轻易地解释为它们相对于地球内部的运动。 53. As the dome grows, it develops seed fissures (cracks); in at least a few cases the continent may break entirely along some of these fissures, so that the hot spot initiates the formation of a new ocean. 54. While warnings are often appropriate and necessary--the dangers of drug interactions, for example--and many are required by state or federal regulations, it isn't clear that they actually protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured.

[参考译文]尽管警告常常是适当而且必须的--比如对于药物相互作用的危险提出警告--许多警告还是按州或联邦政府规定要求给出的,然而(我们)并不清楚,如果顾客受到伤害时,这些警告是不是确实可以使得生产者和销售者豁免责任。 55. At the same time, the American Law Institute--a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weight--issued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones. [参考译文]与此同时,美国法律研究所--由一群法官、律师和理论专家组成,他们的建议分量极重--发布了新的民事伤害法令指导方针,宣称公司不必提醒顾客注意显而易见的危险,也不必连篇累牍地一再提请他们注意一些可能会出现的危险。 56. In the past year, however, software companies have developed tools that allow companies to "push" information directly out to consumers, transmitting marketing messages directly to targeted customers. [参考译文]但是,在过去的一年间,软件公司已经开发出工具,使得公司可以直接将信息"推出"给顾客,直接把营销讯息传递给目标顾客。 57. The examples of Virtual Vineyards, Amazon.com, and other pioneers show that a Web site selling the right kind of products with the right mix of interactivity, hospitality, and security will attract online customers. [参考译文]像Virtual Vineyards,Amazon.com这样的先驱网站表明,一个将交互性、热情服务和安全性合理结合以销售同类商品的网址是可以吸引网上客户注意的。 58. An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students' career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical education reform. [参考译文]有些人为了学生的就业前景为教室里放置电脑而辩,有些人为教育的彻底改革中更为广泛的理由为教室里放置电脑而辩,这两群人之间有一条无形的界线。 59. Rather, we have a certain conception of the American citizen, a character who is incomplete if he cannot competently access how his livelihood and happiness are affected by things outside of himself. [参考译文]我们更应该具有的是作为美国公民的某种观念,这个公民人物如果不能很恰当地认识到自己的生存和幸福是如何受到自身之外的事物的影响,那么其公民特征就是不完整的。 60. Besides, this is unlikely to produce the needed number of every kind of professional in a country as large as ours and where the economy is spread over so many states and involves so many international corporations. [参考译文]另外,在我们这么一个大国里,经济延展到这么多的州、涉及到这么多的国际公司,因而要按照数量培养出所需的各类专业人员是不大可能的 61.But,for a small group of students, professional training might be the way to go since well-developed skills, all other factors being equal, can be the difference between having a job and not. [参考译文]但是,对一个小部分学生来说,职业教育也是条可取的路径。因为在其他因素相同的情况下,技能的娴熟是得到工作与否的关键。 62. Declaring that he was opposed to using this unusual animal husbandry technique to clone humans, he ordered that federal funds not be used for such an experiment-although no one had proposed to do so--and asked an independent panel of experts chaired by Princeton President Harold Shapiro to report back to the White House in 90 days with recommendations for a national policy on human cloning. [参考译文]他宣布自己反对使用这种非同寻常的畜牧繁殖技术来克隆人类,并下令.不准联邦政府基金用于做此类试验--尽管还没有人建议这么做--他还请一个以普林斯顿大学校长哈罗得·夏皮罗为首的独立的专家组在90天内向白宫汇报关于制定有关克隆人的国家政策的建议。 63. In a draft preface to the recommendations, discussed at the 17 May meeting, Shapiro suggested that

the panel had found a broad consensus that it would be "morally unacceptable to attempt to create a human child by adult nuclear cloning". 参考译文]在5月17日的会议上所讨论的这份建议书的序言草案中,夏皮罗提出,专家组已经达成广泛共识,那就是"试图通过成人细胞核克隆来制造人类幼儿的做法在道德上是不可接受的"。 64. Because current federal law already forbids the use of federal funds to create embryos (the earliest stage of human offspring before birth) for research or to knowingly endanger an embryo's life, NBAC will remain silent on embryo research. [参考译文]因为现今的联邦法律已经禁止使用联邦基金克隆胚胎(人类后裔在出生前的最早阶段)用于研究或者有意地威胁胚胎的生命,NBAC在胚胎研究上将保持沉默。 65. If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate, then it is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and cents. [参考译文]如果试验是像科学杂志上的报告所示的那样如实地根据计划规划和实施的话,那么对管理层来说,期待研究能够产生可以用金钱衡量的结果是完全合理的。 66. It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope. [参考译文]审查者完全有理由相信,知道自己准备做什么、怎么做的科学家不应该因为必须一只眼盯着收银机,一只眼盯着显微镜而分散了注意力。 67. Nor, if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect, is management to be blamed for discriminating against the "odd balls" among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who "work well with the team." [参考译文]如果科学家对标准式样的整齐划一的要求就像他论文的写作所反映的一样,那么管理层就不该因歧视研究者中的"思维与众不同的人",喜欢其中较为传统的"善于团队合作"的思想者而受到指责了。 68. The grand mediocrity of today--everyone being the same in survival and number of off-spring--means that natural selection has lost 80% of its power in upper-middle-class India compared to the tribe. [参考译文]当今人与人在很大程度上的平等--即面对自然淘汰法则人人机会均等,并且连子嗣的数目都一样--意味着和在印度土著部落中的情况相比,印度中上层阶级中已丧失了80%的自然选择中的优势。 69. When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal. [参考译文]当艺术领域的一个新运动发展成某种流行时尚时,最好应该弄清这场运动倡导者的真正意图,因为,不管他们的原则在今天看来多么牵强无理,很可能多年以后他们的理论会被视为正常。 70. With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right--it can hardly be classed as Literature. [参考译文]然而就未来主义诗歌来说,情况则不这么简单了,因为不管未来主义诗歌是什么--就算承认它赖以存在的理论基础都是正确的--这种形式也很难被归入文学。 71. But it is a little upsetting to read in the explanatory notes that a certain line describes a fight between a Turkish and a Bulgarian officer on a bridge off which they both fall into the river--and then to find that the line consists of the noise of their falling and the weights of the officers, "Pluff! Pluff!" A hundred and eighty-five kilograms." [参考译文]但当我们先是从注释中得知某诗行讲述了一个土耳其军官和一个保加利亚军官在桥上动手打架并双双掉进河里,而后却发现该行诗中不过只充斥着"扑通,扑通,185公斤重"这类对他们落水时的动静以及对军官们体重的描写时,我们不免感到困惑不安。

72. The coming of age of the postwar baby boom and an entry of women into the male- domiated job market have limited the opportunities of teen-agers who are already questioning the heavy personal sacrifices involved in climbing Janpan's rigid social ladder to good schools and jobs. [参考译文]战后婴儿潮一代的步入成年以及女性打入男性主导的劳动力市场使得青少年的发展机会变得极为有限,他们已经在不停地质疑为了爬上日本国内那通往优秀学校和体面工作的严酷的社会阶梯而做出的巨大的个人牺牲。 73. Last year Mitsuo Setoyama, who was then education minister, raised eyebrows when he argued that liberal reforms introduced by the American occupation authorities after World War II had weakened the "Japanese morality of respect for parents". [参考译文]去年,当担任教育部长职务的濑户光夫争辩说二战后由美国占领当局引入的自由主义革新削弱了日本民族"尊敬父母的道德品质"的时候,舆论哗然。 74. With economic growth has come centralization: fully 76 percent of Japan's 119 million citizens live in cities where community and the extended family have been abandoned in favor of isolated, tow-generation households. [参考译文]随着经济的增长,出现了集中化:全国1.19亿公民,其中整整76%的人口定居城市:在这里,原来的社区和多代同堂的大家庭已被摒弃,取而代之的是与外界疏于往来的、只由两代人组成的核心家庭。 75. If the tradition of ambition is to have vitality, it must be widely shared; and it especially must be highly regarded by people who are themselves admired, the educated not least among them. [参考译文]如果野心的传统具有生命力,那么这传统必会为许多人分享;尤其会受到自己也受人仰慕的人士的青睐,在这些人中受过良好教育的可不占少数。 76. Certainly people do not seem less interested in success and its signs now than formerly. Summer homes, European travel, BMWs--the locations, place names and name brands may change, but such items do not seem less in demand today than a decade or two years ago. [参考译文]当然,人们现在对成功及其各种标志的兴趣似乎并不亚于先前。消夏别墅、欧陆旅行、宝马车--地点、地名以及品牌或许会有变化,但这类事物在今天被人渴求的程度也似乎不会亚于一二十年前。 77. Instead, we are treated to fine hypocritical spectacles, which now more than ever seem in ample supply: the critic of American materialism with a Southampton summer home; the publisher of radical books who takes his meals in three-star restaurants; the journalist advocating participatory democracy in all phases of life, whose own children are enrolled in private schools. [参考译文]相反,我们被款待看到这样一些虚伪的壮观景象,他们似乎比以前的任何时候都更供应充足:美国式物质主义的批判者却拥有位于南安普顿的避暑山庄:激进书籍的出版商却在三星级餐厅享用一日三餐;倡导在人生各个阶段的参与民主制的记者,他的子女却就读于私立学校。 78. No clear-cut distinction can be drawn between professional and amateurs in science: exceptions can be found to any rule. Nevertheless, the word "amateur" does carry a connotation that person concerned is not fully integrated into the scientific community and, in particular, may not share its values. [参考译文]科学领域的专业人员和业余爱好者之间划不出泾渭分明的界线:因为任何规则都有例外。然而,"业余"一词的确意味着相关人员不能充分融入职业科学界,尤其未能分享科学圈子的价值。 79. The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United kingdom. [参考译文]很自然,这种趋势会在尤以数学或实验室训练为基础的自然学科领域表现最为明显,并且可以英国的地质学发展作例证来说明。 80. A comparison of British geological publications over the last century and a half reveals not simply an increasing emphasis on the primacy of research, but also a changing definition of what constitutes an acceptable research paper.

[参考译文]将过去一个半世纪英国地质学领域的出版物做一下比较,(我们)就会发现不仅对科研的主导地位的强调不断攀升,而且一篇可接受的科研论文所包含的内容的定义也有所变化。 81. The overall result has been to make entrance to professional geological journals harder for a mateurs, a result that has been reinforced by the widespread introduction of refereeing, first by national journals in the 19th century and then by several local geological journals in the 20th century. [参考译文]这样一来总的结果便是业余爱好者想在专业地质学期刊…卜发表文章就更难了,而被广泛使用的论文评审推荐制度又进一步强化了这一结果,该种制度先是出现在19世纪的国家级刊物上,后又在20世纪被几家地方级地质学刊物所使用。 82. A rather similar process of differentiation has led to professional geologists coming together nationally within one or two specific societies, whereas the amateurs have tended either to remain in local societies or to come together nationally in a different way. [参考译文]一个颇为相似的分化过程已经导致专业的地质学家走到一起组成一到两个全国性的专科学术社团,而业余地质爱好者们倾向于要么仍留在地方社团,要么也以另一种方式组成全国性机构。 83. Sad to say, this project has turned out to be mostly low--level findings about factual errors and spelling and grammar mistakes, combined with lots of head--scratching puzzlement about what in the world those readers really want. [参考译文]遗憾地讲,这次新闻机构可信度调查计划结果只获得了一些十分低层次的发现,比如新闻报道中的事实错误,拼写或语法错误(和这些低层次发现)交织在一起的还有许多令人挠头的困惑,譬如读者到底想读些什么。 84. I believe that the most important forces behind the massive M&M wave are the same that underlie the globalization process: falling transportation and communication costs, lower trade and investment barriers and enlarged markets that require enlarged operations capable of meeting customers' demands. [参考译文]我认为巨大的并购浪潮背后的最重要的推动力同时也就是促成全球化进程的那方基石:即降低交通运输成本,逐渐减少贸易投资壁垒,以及大。幅度拓展市场,这些都要求更大规模的经营管理以满足消费者需求。 85. A lateral move that hurt my pride and blocked my professional progress promoted me to abandon my relatively high profile career although, in the manner of a disgraced government minister, I covered my exit by claiming "I wanted to spend more time with my family." [参考译文]一次侧面的不光明磊落的攻击伤害了我的自尊,阻碍了我事业的发展, 使我不得不抛弃了那份引人注目的工作,尽管表面上我还要以一个蒙受屈辱的政府部长的姿态,通过声称"我只不过是想多和家人呆在一起"来掩盖我的退出。 86. I have discovered, as perhaps Kelsey will after her much-publicized resignation from the editorship of She after a build-up of stress, that abandoning the doctrine of "juggling your life", and making the alternative move into "downshifting brings with it far greater rewards than financial success and social status. [参考译文]或许正像凯尔西在不堪积劳重负而公开地辞去她在《她》杂志社的编辑一职之后一样,我已经发现,放弃那种"为生活忙碌"的人生信条并转而追求比较悠闲的生活带给你的回报远远大于经济成功和社会地位。 87. While in America the trend started as a reaction to the economic decline-after the mass redundancies caused by downsizing in the late ' 80s-and is still linked to the politics of thrift, in Britain, at least among the middle-class down shifters of my acquaintance, we have different reasons for seeking to simplify our lives. [参考译文]在美国,这一返朴趋势是以经济衰落的反应为开始的--那是在80年代末期裁员而引起大量的失业之后一一现在依然与提倡节俭的政纲相关;而在英国,最起码在我所熟识的中产阶级返朴归隐者中,追

求简约;生活的原因就多种多样了。 88. For the women of my generation who were urged to keep juggling through the' 80s, down-shifting in the mid' 90s is not so much a search for the mythical good lift-growing your own organic vegetables, and risking turning into one-as a personal recognition of your limitations. [参考译文]对于我这一代曾在整个80年代为生活奔波的女人来说,90年代中期出现的归隐恬退与其说是我们寻求一种神话般的美好生活--用有机肥种;植蔬菜,并且自己放弃一切的风险--不如说是我们清醒地认识到自身;能力是有限的这一事实。 89. If you are part of the group which you are addressing, you will be in a position to know the experiences and problems which are common to all of you and it' 11 be appropriate for you to make a passing remark about the inedible canteen food or the chairman' s notorious bad taste in ties. [参考译文]如果你是你讲话对象中的一员,那么你就身处一种(有利)位置宋了解对你们来说都很普遍的经历和问题,而且你对餐厅中难以下咽的食物或老总臭名昭彰的领带品位进行随意评判也是合适的。 90. There are already robot systems that can perform some kinds of brain and bone surgery with submillimeter accuracy far greater precision than highly skilled physicians can achieve with their handsaone [参考译文]现在已有一些机器人系统能够进行精确到毫米以下的脑部和骨骼手术这要比极具技巧的医生单单用手精确得多。 91. But if robots are to reach the next stage of laborsaving utility, they will have to operate with less human supervision and be able to make at least' a few decisions for themselves-goals that pose a real challenge. [参考译文]但是如果机器人要达到节省人工的下一个阶段,它们将必须在更少的人力监督之下工作,而且还要能够自己作出至少几个决定--这些目标才会引发真正的挑战。 92. But the human mind can glimpse a rapidly changing scene and immediately disregard the 98 percent that is irrelevant, instantaneously focusing on the monkey at the side of a winding forest road or the single suspicious face in a big crowd. [参考译文]但是人类的头脑可以只迅速地瞟一眼一个快速改变的场面,然后立刻放弃98%的不相关部分,而马上聚焦于一条崎岖森林道路边的一只猴子,或者在茫茫人海中的一张可疑的脸。 93. The OECD estimates in its latest Economic Outlook that, if oil prices averaged $22 a barrel for a full year, compared with $13 in 1998, this would increase the oil import bill in rich economies by only 0.25---0.5% of GDP. [参考译文]OECD在其最近的《经济瞭望》中估计,如果石油价格与1998年的每桶13美元相比在一年中平均为每22美元,这也只会给富裕的经济体的石油进口账单上增加GDP的0.25%到0.5%。 94. One more reason not to lose sleep over the rise in oil prices is that, unlike the rises in the 1970s, it has not occurred against the background of general commodity-price inflation and global excess demand. [参考译文]另外一个不应因油价上涨而失眠的原因是,这次不像70年代的那些次上涨,它并不是在普遍的商品价格暴涨和全球需求过旺的背景之下发生的。 95. Although it ruled that there is no constitutional right to physician-assisted suicide, the Court in effect supported the medical principle of "double effect", a centuries-old moral principle holding that an action having two effects--a good one that is intended and a harmful one that is foreseen--is permissible if the actor intends only the good effect. [参考译文]尽管它裁决并没有宪法权利来支持医生帮助下的自杀行为,最高法院实际上支持了被称为"双重效果"的医疗原则;这个已有几个世纪历史的道德原则认为一个可能有两个效果的行为--一个想要达到的好的效果和一个已经预见到的有害的效果是被允许的,如果行为的实施者想要的只是好的效果的话。 96. Nancy Dubler, director of Montefiore Medical Center, contends that the principle will shield doctorswho "until now have very, very strongly insisted that they could not give patients sufficient mediation to control their pain if that might hasten death." [参考译文]Nancy Dubler,Montehore医疗中心的主任,认为这一原则将会保护这样一些医生,他们到目前为止还强烈坚持他们不能够给病人足量的镇痛剂来控制他们的疼痛,如果这么做会加速他们的死亡的话。 97. On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted—suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying. [参考译文]在另一个层面上,很多医疗界的人承认,关于医生帮助下的自杀的讨论部分是因为病人的绝望情绪,对他们来说,现代医学已经延长了死亡的身体痛苦。 98. It identifies the undertreatment of pain and the aggressive use of "ineffectual and forced medical procedures that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying" as the twin problems of end--of--life care. [参考译文]它把对疼痛的治疗不足和盲目积极使用"有可能延长死亡时间甚至让死亡过程蒙羞的无效并且强迫性的医疗手段"视为生命临终医护的两个问题。 99. In other words, there is a conventional story line in the newsroom culture that provides a backbone and a ready-made narrative structure for otherwise confusing new. [参考译文]换句话说,在媒介机构的新闻采编室文化中存在着--套约定俗成的写作模式,为新闻报道提供了主干框架以及可直接套用的叙述结构。若没有这些,新闻内容就会一团混乱,让人摸不着头脑。 100. If it did, it would open up its diversity program, now focused narrowly on race and gender, and look for reporters who differ broadly by outlook, values, education, and class. [参考译文]如果新闻界真的注意到了问题的关键,它就应该进一步开放其多样化项目,这个项目现在还只单纯考虑招收不同种族和性别的员工,而进一步寻找那些世界观、价值观、教育水平和社会阶层大相径庭的各种记者。 全部摘自94--02年阅读真题,未做真题请勿看.

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