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社会媒体营销和公关(SMM、SMPR)  

2008-08-28 16:39:58|  分类: 市场营销 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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美国的新营销咨询公司Ignite的网站上有一篇文章(英文),描述了他们在为客户提供新营销服务时遇到的一个棘手问题。

企业传统的营销活动(广告、促销、营销公关等)都有一个时限,活动一般持续数周到几个月,长一些也不过一年半载。而社会化媒体营销借助的是网络这个可以长期保留并激活营销活动的平台,Adweek指出(英文),一些企业发现了运用社会化媒体进行营销活动时,活动周期可以延长,并可从中获得诸多好处。

Ignite的Lisa McNeill指出了在建议和帮助企业延长社会化营销活动周期时候碰到的具体困难:
  • 企业的预算划拨有时限,营销部门只能争取少量机动资金来进行短期的社会化媒体营销
  • 营销活动一般针对的是销售、产品知名度等短期目标
  • 长期的社会化营销需跨部门的协作,一般企业很难做到
其实,我们在接触一些中国企业的过程中,也遇到了几乎一模一样的问题。这说明企业在接受和实践新营销的过程具有一些共性,具体来说,企业比较容易:
  • 先从看的见、带有急迫性的“问题”开始,如,销售、产品推出和推广、以及公关危机等
  • 缺少可量化的ROI时,愿意先从尝试小规模、低预算的活动开始
  • 由后援性质的营销部门负责,因此不愿或无法承担战略层面的长期投入
如此种种,与我所理解的社会化媒体营销的特质、优点和实施策略等有相当的距离。长话短说吧,我觉得不妨把社会化媒体营销分为两类,它们的特点和作用分述如下:
  • 社会化媒体营销(social media marketing,SMM)
    • 前台营销
    • 解决的问题/商业目标:销售、销售线索、产品推出、公关危机
    • 方法:产品试用、evangelist活动、名人/吉祥物促销、话题营销
    • 时间视野:短期 - 中期
    • 与传统营销的结合点:促销、产品推出、营销公关等
    • 部门:营销/市场部门
    • 预算:不多
    • 策划层面:职能部门(市场部)即可
  • 社会化媒体公关(social media PR,SMPR)
    • 后台营销
    • 解决的问题/商业目标:客户服务、消费体验、品牌提升、网络声誉
    • 时间视野:中期 - 长期
    • 与传统营销的结合点:客户服务、品牌管理、企业公关等
    • 部门:需要多个部门的协作,可以由一个部门来领头负责
    • 预算:多,或者根据需要追加
    • 策划层面:需要高层管理从战略层面给予承诺和支持
从实际来看,在企业对社会化媒体营销的特质有深入了解前,销售导向、短时间预期的社会化媒体营销(SMM)将是企业比较容易理解和接受的形式。作为提供新营销服务和咨询公司,将会有一段艰难的路要走。
或许从公司品牌和产品品牌这两个层次来看营销传播活动(小容更愿意用这个复杂一点的名词,而不是营销活动),可以看出企业对于行销传播的投资的时效考虑。

时效性:

公司品牌通常的时效性比产品品牌更长,因为它通常和公司的战略密切相关。如果公司的战略没有太大的变动,基本上公司品牌传播的基调会保持一致,而 只是具体的传播实践上有细致的调整。显然,公司战略的变动,这个时间周期会比产品品牌的调整周期要长很多。许多产品品牌在一个行销季节过后,就改变整体的 行销传播战略的事例,相信这是屡见不鲜的。

手段:

因为面对的利益群体不同,自然在行销传播手段上,公司品牌和产品品牌采用的方式方法也不同。产品品牌以产品的使用者和购买者为中心,以其他层次的 媒体、消费意见领袖等等为外围关注对象,而公司品牌则会以投资者、上下游商业伙伴、政府及媒体以及行业组织等为核心,以产品使用者和购买者为外围关注对 象。因此,在开展公司品牌传播的时候,显然不会采用到社区居民小区里搞产品试用和抽奖。

组织管理:

公司品牌的运作涉及到多个部门,已经不在营销部门的决策权限,而是由最高管理层来做决策。而产品品牌方面的行销传播活动,通常则由营销管理部门直接决策就可以了。

当然,公司品牌和产品品牌的营销活动并不是完全的泾渭分明。在公司这个角度来看,公司会运用品牌背书效应将两者关联起来;而在利益者/消费者这个角度,“爱乌及乌”的效应会非常明显。

谈到这里,小容想做一个假设,或许在口碑传播过程中,人们更倾向于忽略具体的细节,而将注意力集中的宏大的概念上。因为在多层次传播过程中,信息 会逐渐衰减,而被保留下来的信息必须是特别能吸引人注意力,以及便于记忆的信息。如果按照这样的假设,那么,一次关于产品的不良消费体验,在社会化媒体空 间里,会演化为对公司品牌有危害的危机事件,而不会一直停留在具体的产品讨论上面。

Congratulations! We’re trucking right along on turning you into a Social Media Marketing success story, and you’ve already gotten through the hard part. Well, really, you’ve barely scratched the surface, but don’t worry—it just gets more fun from here.

RaceKnow Your Competition – You’re likely familiar with the adage: Keep your friends close and your enemies closer, and as it turns out, there is a lot of truth behind that statement. Not that I necessarily advocate considering your competition to be the “enemy,” but it is important to know that who you probably consider to be your “competition” can be your greatest asset. Remember, this is social media, not war. So, now that you’ve established your identity and made some friends, it is time to get some clout and sit with the popular kids. Here are a few tips to get you there:

  • Make an Impression – I’m going to drop a quote on you right now, and you can use it, but just remember where you heard it first:

    “It’s not about who you know, it’s about who you impress.”

    Even if you don’t have an ounce of talent in your little finger, you can still do great things. Someone out there is impressed with you already: you. If you followed step 1, you have by now gotten a sense of whom you are, and with that, you hopefully gained the confidence necessary to know that you are worthy of doing what you are doing.

  • Get a Reputation – You can’t start a reputation, you have to earn it. You can seed your content and send it to the people who you’ve impressed (or would like to), but because of the fickle nature of social media, you won’t be able to assure the fact that people will hire / book / pay you until you have the clout it takes to let them know you are playing with the best of them. Here is an article from Attraction Renegade that explores some methods of building your reputation with social networking. As something to avoid, be careful about shilling your own content. No one likes a spammer. For more on that and other “unwritten rules” of social media marketing, check out this article on MelodyThacker.com.
  • Learn From Their Mistakes – Others have tried, and others have certainly failed before they got to where they are. You can always learn from them. Don’t be afraid to ask how others got their start, and what they did to get the opportunities they have. Whereas in a world that confuses us to believe that others in our fields are the ones to be wary of, social media is a much different playing field. Use your contacts to get in touch with your idols and influences, and find out what makes them tick. Be transparent as always, and don’t forget to let them know how and why you admire them. Who knows, those people could be the right ones to impress after all.
  • Scratch Backs – Another adage you are probably familiar with is “you scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours.” Well, in the world of social media, it might be more beneficial to start scratching first. Nothing tells another blogger / writer / artist / musician that you appreciate what they are doing than by helping them promote their work. It will get you noticed by them, and also help your own credibility amongst your peers. Endorsements can be a very positive, and that is an asset in the sometimes aggressive and cold world of marketing.

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