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Nobel Prizes given out on Dec. 10th  

2009-12-10 13:04:52|  分类: 外语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Why are the Nobel Prizes always given out on the 10th of December? Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel died on December 10, 1896. In his will he left instructions for the establishment of a foundation which would award monetary prizes to people who did outstanding work in physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature, and economics and for the promotion of world peace. Today, there are a couple of "firsts" among the laureates: Barack Obama is the first sitting American president to win the Nobel Peace Prize and Elinor Ostrom is the first female laureate of the Prize in Economic Sciences. Other Nobel Prize trivia tidbits: the youngest laureate is Lawrence Bragg, who was 25 years old when he received the Nobel Prize in Physics along with his father, in 1915. Leonid Hurwicz was, at 90, the oldest recipient of a Nobel Prize — the 2007 Prize in Economic Sciences. Two Nobel laureates declined the honor: Jean-Paul Sartre, who on principle turned down all official honors, declined the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature; and Le Duc Tho, co-recipient, with Henry Kissinger, of the 1973 Nobel Peace Prize, declined the award saying that he could not accept a reward for negotiating the Vietnam peace accord, given the situation in Vietnam at the time.

at (the) least

至少, 起码; 无论如何

at the very least

[用于加强语气] (=at the least, in the  least)一点, 丝毫

not in the least


to say the least (of it)

[插入语]至少(可以这样说), 退一步说

least of all

尤其是, 最不

Least said, soonest mended .(=The least said the better.)

[]多说惹祸, 少说为妙; 话越少越好。

He found himself encharged with the bringing up of a young nobleman.


vote with (one's) feet【俚语】

To indicate a preference or an opinion by leaving or entering a particular locale:


If older cities are allowed to decay and contract, can citizens who vote with their feet . . . hope to find better conditions anywhere else?”(Melinda Beck)


leave to (one's) own devices

To allow to do as one pleases:


left the child to her own devices for an hour in the afternoon.


Per diem, part-time, full-time, carpe diem.

We’ll commence the project straight away. commence,start, initiate, begin, sorry about this last minute change. 
we will phase-out france office gradually. Thank you for the opportunity to supply you with a quote for GenScript Services.

sauve qui peut n.溃散, 四散逃生

Man of the world:A sophisticated, worldly man.老于世故、精于处世的人 saturated.

wear your heart on your sleeve

As yet [多用于否定句中]到现在为止, 到那时为止

absent friends; absent parents.


soon after, I appreciate your patience. Questions marked with an asterisk (*) are mandatory.

be at one's last shift

陷入绝境, 山穷水尽

do a shift

走掉, 离开


drive [put, reduce] sb. to his [the] (last) shifts


for a shift


full of shifts and devices


live by shift(s)


make (a) shift


尽力设法应付; 凑合着使用某物(with)

尽力做到; 设法做某事; 赶快做某事(to do sth.)

sail with every shift of wind


try every shift available


the shifts and changes of life


shift about

搬来搬去; 改变方向

shift for oneself


shift off



离开, 走开

Shiftman n.(作业)班长

worked the night shift. 值夜班

by rights

In a just or proper manner; justly.


in (one's) own right

Through the force of one's own skills or qualifications.


right and left

From all directions or on every side:


criticism coming right and left; questions raised from right and left.


to rights

In a satisfactory or orderly condition:


set the place to rights.


an awkward staircase


awkward time


an awkward customer

[]难对付的家伙, 危险的人[]

an awkward question


in an awkward situation


an awkward remark


awkward age


The child is still awkward with his chopsticks.


stop bydrop by,

it remains to be seen


Nothing remains but to


remain in


remain out

呆在外面, 留在户外

remain up


remain with

...的权限内, 属于

Keep somebody posted/ well-informed/ updated for update.

card up (one's) sleeve

A secret resource or plan held in reserve:


a tough negotiator who had a number of cards up his sleeve.


in the cards

Likely or certain to happen:


My promotion to a higher position just isn't in the cards.


put (one's) cards on the table

lay (one's) cards on the table

To make frank and clear revelation, as of one's motives or intentions.


thanked the host for including us.


In-house scientists become real "engineers" not "technicians". Longing for your good news! Be eager for/to/about/after…

political acumen


business acumen


please me


fee-for-services All the best during the festive seasonfiscal year. We are sorry that we didn't make this known to you before the order was placed. I am forwarding an email string below. Don Graham here, from Merck.

for the record正式的, 有案可查的, proceed with


adjective Of yesterday.
From Latin hesternus (of yesterday)
There's an equivalent term for "today":
"I passed up a side-street, one of those deserted ways ... dim places, fusty with hesternal excitements and the thrills of yesteryear." — Rupert Brooke; Letters From America; Sidgwick & Jackson; 1971.


A federal program that pays for certain health care expenses for people aged 65 or older. Enrolled individuals must pay deductibles and co-payments, but much of their medical costs are covered by the program. Medicare is less comprehensive than some other health care programs, but it is an important source of post-retirement health care. Medicare is divided into three parts. Part A covers hospital bills, Part B covers doctor bills, and Part C provides the option to choose from a package of health care plans.

currency basket

A group of securities whose weighted average is used to determine the value of an obligation or the value of another currency. For instance, a country that does not peg the value of its currency to a single other currency, such as the U.S. dollar, could value its currency to the value of a currency basket comprised of Euros, U.S. dollars, and Japanese Yen.


Slang term for the U.S. ten dollar paper currency. The slang is derived from the Roman numeral for ten, "X". The "X" looks like the shape of a sawbuck, a device used to hold wood in place for sawing it into pieces.

Dow: American economist and publisher who with Edward D. Jones (1856-1920) established Dow Jones & Company (1882), a publisher of financial bulletins. In 1889 he founded theWall Street Journal. 

cash and carry trade

An arbitrage strategy usually consisting of the purchase of a particular security and the sale of a similar security (often the purchase of a security and the sale of a corresponding futures contract). Cash and carry trading is done when the investor feels that the two securities are mispriced with respect to each other, and that the mispricing will correct itself such that the gain on one side of the trade will more than cancel out the loss on the other side of the trade. In the case of such a trade taking place on a security and the futures contract, the trade will be profitable if the purchase price plus the cost of carry is less than the futures price. also called basis trading.

leveraged loan

A loan provided to a company already holding a considerable amount of debt. Because the company being given the loan is already highly leveraged this type of loan carries more risk to investors, who require higher rates of return in order to compensate for the higher risk of default or insolvency.

monetary reserve

A government's stockpile of foreign currency and precious metals. Monetary reserves are useful both for settling transactions involving foreign counterparties and for undertaking trading in foreign exchange and commodity markets. In general, the larger the monetary reserve, the better the country is able to engage in transactions with foreign countries.

principal trade

A securities trade executed by a broker/dealer for its own account rather than the account of a client.


The name for the composite monetary unit that has replaced national currencies in several European countries. The desire of the European Union is for all member states to use the Euro as their national currency, and as of 2009 it has been adopted by more than half of the member states. The Euro was introduced on January 1st, 1999 and went into general circulation on January 1st, 2002. The currency includes both coins and banknotes, in various denominations. The collection of all states that use the Euro is referred to as the Eurozone. In 2008, the Euro became the currency having the most cash in circulation (beating the U.S. dollar).

corporate stock

An instrument that signifies an ownership position, or equity, in a corporation, and represents a claim on its proportionate share in the corporation's assets and profits. However, the claim to a company's assets and earnings of most stockholders is subordinated to the claim that the company's debtors have on its assets and earnings. also called equities or equity securities or corporate stock.

nonperforming asset

A loan or lease that is not meeting its stated principal and interest payments. Banks usually classify as nonperforming assets any commercial loans which are more than 90 days overdue and any consumer loans which are more than 180 days overdue. More generally, an asset which is not producing income.

common stock

Securities representing equity ownership in a corporation, providing voting rights, and entitling the holder to a share of the company's success through dividends and/or capital appreciation. In the event of liquidation, common stockholders have rights to a company's assets only after bondholders, other debt holders, and preferred stockholders have been satisfied. Typically, common stockholders receive one vote per share to elect the company's board of directors (although the number of votes is not always directly proportional to the number of shares owned). The board of directors is the group of individuals that represents the owners of the corporation and oversees major decisions for the company. Common shareholders also receive voting rights regarding other company matters such as stock splits and company objectives. In addition to voting rights, common shareholders sometimes enjoy what are called "preemptive rights". Preemptive rights allow common shareholders to maintain their proportional ownership in the company in the event that the company issues another offering of stock. This means that common shareholders with preemptive rights have the right but not the obligation to purchase as many new shares of the stock as it would take to maintain their proportional ownership in the company. also called junior equity.


Restore a past-due loan to a current status.

To renew insurance coverage after a lapse. For example, if premiums are not paid in a timely fashion and a policy lapses, it may be reinstated within a specific period of time if the policy holder remains insurable. The option to reinstate coverage must be weighed against the potential advantages and disadvantages associated with a new policy. These might include changes in premium costs and the resetting of provisions for contestability and suicide.

cash asset ratio

Total dollar value of cash and marketable securities divided by current liabilities. For a bank this is the cash held by the bank as a proportion of deposits in the bank. The cash asset ratio measures the extent to which a corporation or other entity can quickly liquidate assets and cover short-term liabilities, and therefore is of interest to short-term creditors. also called liquidity ratio or cash ratio.

global fund

A mutual fund investing in stocks or bonds throughout the world, including the U.S. This differs from an international fund, which does not include the U.S. Global funds can provide more opportunities for diversification than domestic funds alone, but there can be additional risks associated with global funds, including currency fluctuations and political and economic instability. also called world fund.

(rap-or-TUHR) noun
1. Someone appointed by an organization, group, or committee to investigate or monitor an issue, and compile and present the findings.
2. One who is designated to record the deliberations of a meeting.
From French raportour (reporter), from rapporter (to bring back, report), from apporter (to bring), from Latin portare (carry). Ultimately from the Indo-European root per- (to lead, pass over) that also gave us support, comport, petroleum, sport, passport,
colporteur (a peddler of religious books), Swedish fartlek (a training technique), Norwegian fjord (bay), and Sanskrit parvat (mountain).
The word rapporteur in French has various other meanings besides a reporter, such as an informer or a tattletale, and a protractor.
"The United Nations special rapporteur, Raquel Rolnik, listened to it all patiently, occasionally taking notes, nodding encouragement." Chris McGreal; UN Meets Homeless Victims of American Property Dream; The Guardian (London, UK); Nov 12, 2009.
Weekly theme
A common misconception is that in the past when an immigrant to the US arrived on
Ellis Island, the clerk at the registration office often changed a name, from Kwiatkovski to Kay, for example. While stories of renaming at the port of entry are mostly myths (see http://www.ancestry.com/learn/library/article.aspx?article=3893 ), many names were later anglicized, such as Pedersen becoming Peterson.
Something similar happens with the language. What do the words puny, petty, mayday have in common? Each is a French word that has been adopted into English with a phonetic respelling, from puisné, petit, and m'aidez (literally, Help me).
This week we've picked five French terms that are used in English with little change. They have the same spellings and meanings, though English pronunciations are a little different from their original French.

InsouciantUnconcerned; carefree

house rules

A broker/dealer's set of internal rules describing how customer accounts should be handled. They are intended to make sure that the firm complies with regulatory requirements and are usually more stringent than external rules require.

intellectual property

Any intangible asset that consists of human knowledge and ideas. Some examples are patents, copyrights, trademarks and software. Most such assets cannot be recongized on a balance sheet when internally generated, since it is very difficult to objectively value intellectual property assets (slightly different rules apply in the case of software). They can, however, be included in a balance sheet if acquired, which allows a more accurate valuation for the asset (that is, the acquisition cost).


A legal document offering securities or mutual fund shares for sale, required by the Securities Act of 1933. It must explain the offer, including the terms, issuer, objectives (if mutual fund) or planned use of the money (if securities), historical financial statements, and other information that could help an individual decide whether the investment is appropriate for him/her. also called offering circular or circular.

or amour propre
(ah-moor PRO-pruh) noun
Self-esteem; self-respect.
From French amour-propre (self-esteem), from amour (love) + propre (own).
"Diaghilev was always happy to trample on the feelings of his colleagues if he thought that the outcome merited it and at different times we see Fokine, Benois, Bakst, and Nijinsky all desolated by jealousy and injured amour-propre." Luke Jennings; A Tyrannical Genius; The Observer (London, UK); Oct 25, 2009.

esprit de corps
A spirit of solidarity; a sense of pride, devotion, and honor among the members of a group.
From French esprit (spirit), de (of), corps (body, group).
"Using cooking to promote an esprit de corps and employee bonding had its beginnings on the West Coast." Jonnie Bassaro; Corporate Employees Bond Through Cooking; News-Times (Danbury, Connecticut); Sep 17, 2007.

basis swap

A specific type of interest rate swap, where the interest rates exchanged are based on different money markets or currencies.

asking price

The lowest price for which any investor or dealer has declared that he/she will sell a given security or commodity. For over-the-counter stocks, the asking price is the best quoted price at which a Market Maker is willing to sell a stock. For mutual funds, the asking price is the net asset value plus any sales charges. also called asked price or offering price or ask.

chef d'oeuvre
(shay-DOO-vruh) noun A masterpiece.
From French chef-d'oeuvre (masterpiece), from chef (chief) + oeuvre (work).
"Not every item is a chef d'oeuvre: The Surrealists loved to create collages from trivial snapshots." Jorg von Uthmann; Kinky Dolls, Glass Tears Adorn Surrealist Photo Show; Bloomberg; Oct 29, 2009.

savoir faire
(SAV-wahr-fayr) noun
The ability to say or do the right thing in any situation; tact.
From French
savoir-faire (know-how), from savoir (to know) + faire (to do).
"In a cascade of thanks, C.S. Richardson bows gracefully to all those elegant Londoners, full of savoir faire." Peter Wells; The A to Z of Life; New Zealand Herald (Auckland); Jul 7, 2008.

noun Government by the least qualified or most unprincipled citizens.
Greek kakistos, worst, superlative of kakos, bad + -cracy, government, rule.
"Russia is proving the opposite. Late last year, the kakistocracy propping up Boris Yeltsin decided not to risk giving up power." — William Safire, Contrasting Elections, The New York Times, March 20, 2000.

(luh-KUS-trin) adjective
1. Of or relating to lakes.
2. Living or growing in or along the edges of lakes.
French, or Italian lacustre (from Latin lacus, lake) + -ine.
"Before the rise of the Aztec state, the lacustrine system at the bottom of the basin covered approximately 1,500 sq. km. It was formed by five shallow lakes that ran in a north-south chain." — Ezcurra, Exequiel; Mazari-Hiriart, Marisa, Are mega cities viable? A cautionary tale from Mexico City, Environment, Jan 11, 1996.

(mar-guhr-i-TAY-shuhs) adjective Pearly.
From Latin margarita, from Greek margarites (pearl)

Margarita, the tequila cocktail, is named after Margarita, the Spanish form of the name Margaret, meaning pearl. Who this woman was isn't certain. Perhaps this offers an opportunity to extend the meaning of the word margaritaceous after the drink.
"The mesial band has something of a margaritaceous sheen, but it is very slight and dull." — Charles James Stewart Bethune, et al; The Canadian Entomologist; 1868.




What's the name of Kirk Douglas's film production company? When Kirk Douglas started his own film production company in 1955, he called it Bryna Productions, named for his mother. It was this company that produced two of his most famous films, both directed by Stanley Kubrik: the anti-war epic, Paths of Glory (1857), and the historical drama, Spartacus (1960). Born Issur Danielovitch, Douglas began acting in the 1940s, winning his first Oscar nomination for his role as a boxer in Champion (1949). He won two more nominations for his work in The Bad and the Beautiful (1952) and Lust for Life (1956). In 1996 he won an honorary Oscar for his contributions to the motion picture industry. Douglas is remembered as one of the leaders in breaking the Hollywood blacklist when he stood by blacklisted writer Dalton Trumbo, insisting that Trumbo receive credit for writing the screenplay of Spartacus. Happy 93rd birthday to film icon and social activist Kirk Douglas.
Quote: "When you become a star, you don't change — everyone else does."Kirk Douglas

When did NFL players start to wear helmets? The last time a National Football League team member played without a helmet was during the 1940 NFL Championship Game. Chicago Bears' end Dick Plasman hardly needed to cover his head. His team beat the rival Washington Redskins, 73-0, in the most lopsided game in NFL history, on December 8, 1940. It was a home game for the 'Skins, who had beat the Bears, 7-3, just three weeks earlier. When the Bears decided to get even, they pulled out all the stops. Late in the game, officials begged Bears coach George Halas not to kick for extra points; they were running out of footballs, since so many had flown through the uprights into the crowd.
Quote: "I think you're a great football team, the greatest ever assembled. Go out on the field and prove it."George Halas, to his team before the big game

What is the oldest symphony orchestra in the US, and how did it come into existence? America's oldest symphony orchestra, the New York Philharmonic, debuted on December 7, 1842, with Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. The conductor and founder of the orchestra was violinist Ureli Corelli Hill. Hill had already been involved in another musical group in New York, called the New York Sacred Music Society when he organized a meeting and the founding of a philharmonic orchestra. He was chosen to be the first president of the New York Philharmonic Society. The orchestra was five years old before women were allowed to buy subscription tickets. In 1928, the New York Philharmonic merged with New York's National Symphony Orchestra, making it New York City's primary orchestra. From the initial schedule of three concerts a year, the New York Philharmonic has grown to its current 200 yearly concerts, including concerts in the parks, children's concerts and repertoires of popular as well as classical music.
Quote: "I float from day to day, concert to concert, masterpiece to masterpiece, supported by the sound of the New York Philharmonic."Lorin Maazel, one-time music director of the NY Philharmonic

How much did the first volume of the 'Encyclop?dia Britannica' cost? The first "number" or pamphlet of the Encyclop?dia Britannica went on sale in Edinburgh on December 6, 1768, for sixpence. The three-volume set was a product of the environment of scholarship and renewal that abounded during this period of the Scottish Enlightenment. Poets, philosophers, mathematicians and artists brought a new, practical and scientific focus to their work and writings. Active during this 18th century era were people like Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, Adam Smith, Robert Burns, James Watt and William Smellie. Smellie was the editor of the original Britannica, which was published by Colin Macfarquhar and Andrew Bell. The thoughts and ideals of the Scottish Enlightenment made their way to other countries, even stretching to America, through Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson, both of whom corresponded with and learned from the Scottish scholars.
Quote: "We look to Scotland for all our ideas of civilisation."Voltaire

How old was Jeff Bridges when he first appeared in the movies? Jeff Bridges had his first film role when he was just an infant, in the movie, The Company She Keeps; his mother, Dorothy, and brother, Beau, also had uncredited roles in the same picture. When he got a bit older, Jeff Bridges appeared with his father, Lloyd, in his popular TV series, Sea Hunt. His break-out role, however, was that of Duane Jackson in The Last Picture Show, in 1971 — a role that brought him his first of four Oscar nods. His other nominations were for Thunderbolt and Lightfoot (1974), Starman (1984) and The Contender (2000). Aside from his acting, Bridges is an accomplished painter, photographer and guitarist, even providing the illustrations for a book he wrote in his role as a writer of spooky children's stories in The Door in the Floor. Happy birthday to Jeff Bridges, who turns 60 today.
Quote: "Movies are like magic tricks."Jeff Bridges

Was Stanley Kowalski Marlon Brando's only role on Broadway? No, but it was his last Broadway role. Marlon Brando first appeared on Broadway in I Remember Mama, in 1944. Two years later he was voted Broadway's Most Promising Actor for his performance in Truckline Cafe, which also starred Karl Malden and was directed by Elia Kazan. The three worked together again making the stage and film productions of Tennessee Williams' A Streetcar Named Desire, which opened on Broadway on this date in 1947. Brando played Stanley Kowalski, Malden was his work colleague, Mitch, and Jessica Tandy won a Tony for her performance as the faded Southern belle Blanche DuBois. Kim Hunter won the role of Blanche DuBois in the film version. Malden and Brando went on to star together in Kazan's On the Waterfront.
Quote: "I have always depended on the kindness of strangers."Blanche DuBois in Tennessee Williams' A Streetcar Named Desire

General Electric has reached a tentative/tryout/pilot/scout agreement to buy Vivendi.

How long did the first recipient of an artificial heart live? Barney Clark, the retired dentist who received the first artificial heart on December 2, 1982, lived with it for 112 days, when physical complications caused by the artificial implant caused his death. In 1986, William Schroeder became the second person to get an artificial heart, also called a Jarvik-7; he lived for 620 days. The Jarvik-7 was named for its inventor, Dr. Robert Jarvik. He made a device from aluminum and plastic to replace the two lower chambers of the natural heart. Two rubber diaphragms were used to pump the new organ. The entire mechanism was attached to a very large external compressor which kept the heart beating. Since the patient had to be constantly connected to this machine, his freedom of movement and quality of life were limited. The Jarvik-7 came to be used to keep a patient alive until an appropriate donor of a natural heart was found.
Quote: "To wear your heart on your sleeve isn't a very good plan; you should wear it inside, where it functions best."Margaret Thatcher

When did Bingo become such a popular fundraiser for churches? IN 1930, a priest in Wilkes-Barre, PA, thought of using the game of Bingo to raise money for his church. He bought several sets and invited his congregants to play. At that time there were only a small number of different cards, resulting in several winners per round. The priest approached the game's innovator, Edwin Lowe, and asked him to come up with more variations. Lowe worked with a math professor to increase the number of combinations on the Bingo cards. Eventually, they came up with 6,000 different variations, and Bingo grew into a $5 billion-a-year charitable fundraiser. December is Bingo month, celebrating the game — then called Beano — which Lowe first saw played in December 1929. He brought it back home and developed his own boxed set, which became a major hit. Bingo!
Quote: "Sure, I could retire; but what would I do? Play Bingo? I think not!"Dawn Wells

In Gulliver's Travels, who ruled whom: the Yahoos or the Houyhnhnms? The savage, unsavory Yahoos — the representation of all that is bad about humans — were ruled by the Houyhnhnms, a race of calm, stable and intelligent horses. Gulliver's Travels was the best known work of author, poet and clergyman Jonathan Swift. In a review of his own life, called Verses on the Death of Doctor Swift, he wrote, "For poetry, he's past his prime, He takes an hour to find a rhyme; His fire is out, his wit decayed, His fancy sunk, his muse a jade. I'd have him throw away his pen, But there's no talking to some men." Swift, born on this date in 1667, was a biting satirist who was one of the founding members of the Scriblerus Club.
Quote: "Every man desires to live long, but no man wishes to be old."Jonathan Swift

What is the Doppler effect? In 1845, Christoph Buys Ballot conducted experiments having musicians play tunes on flatbed railway trains, while people with perfect pitch wrote down the changing notes they heard as the train approached and then receded. This confirmed the findings of a mathematical formula Christian Doppler had come up with three years earlier — the Doppler effect. It shows that the perceived frequency of a sound, light or radio wave depends on the speed of the source relative to the observer. He postulated that this effect caused the color of binary stars, stating that an object moving toward the viewer would appear bluer and one moving away would look redder. Doppler was born on this date in 1803.
Quote: "Professor Doppler over several weeks has excited me with his ideas, the one more brilliant than the other. I must think about them day and night."Bernard Bolzano

It is amazing how fast this year has gone by. It is already Thanksgiving, and we have a little more than a month left in 2009.  Economic recovery seems to be on it's way and we are all looking forward to a great 2010.   I hope you have a happy and relaxing Thanksgiving holiday. I hope this is agreeable to you. a special price rebate for Roche. As a gesture of good will and to show our appreciation, I’d like to offer you a 20% discount. I trust you had a nice Thanksgiving break. Please just disregard the previous email from me.




There are two different words, complimentary and complementary.

One comes from compliment - "saying nice things".


He complimented her on her presentation.

Many people paid him compliments.

She was very complimentary about his work.



One comes from complement - "goes well together".


This new system complements the existing system, it doesn't replace it.

The jewellery complemented her dress beautifully.

We make a great team. Our skills complement each other perfectly.



So which form is better to use to mean a *free* drink?

In American English, the answer is clear. It's a complimentary drink.

In British English, I've seen both forms used. Look, for example, at this Web page from a language school in Oxford. http://www.oxfordenglishexperience.co.uk/index.php/courses-and-pricing

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