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英语姓名结构小常识  

2009-02-25 13:10:12|  分类: 外语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Common components of true names given at birth include:

  • Personal Name: Universal. In most of Western culture, the given name precedes the family name; some other cultures place it after the family name, or use no family name.
  • Patronymic: A surname based on the given name of the father.
  • Matronymic (also Metronymic): A surname based on the given name of the mother.
  • Family name: A name used by all members of a family. In Europe, after the loss of the Roman system, the common use of family names started quite early in some areas (France in the 13th century, and Germany in the 16th century), but it often did not happen until much later in areas that used a patronymic naming custom, such as the Scandinavian countries, Wales, and some areas of Germany as well as Eastern European countries such as Russia and Ukraine. The compulsory use of surnames varied greatly. France required a priest to write surnames in baptismal records in 1539 (but did not require surnames for Jews, who usually used patronymics, until 1808). On the other hand, surnames were not compulsory in the Scandinavian countries until the 20th century (1923 for Norway), and Iceland still does not use surnames for its native inhabitants. Before the use of family names, people were often referred to by a given name or description or nickname, their place of birth or former place of residence, their occupation, or their parent's name. Many modern family names derive from one of these, frozen to refer to an ancestral given name, place, or occupation.
  • Middle name: Least common. In royal or aristocratic families, several middle names honoring ancestors, relatives, or political allies are commonly given. In many families, single middle names are simply alternative names, names honoring an ancestor or relative, or, for married women, occasionally their maiden names. Many Catholic families choose a saint's name as their child's middle name or this can be left until the child's confirmation when they choose a saint's name for themselves. Cultures that use patronymics or matronymics will often give middle names to distinguish between two similarly named people: e.g. Einar Karl Stefánsson and Einar Gu?mundur Stefánsson. This is especially done in Iceland (as shown in example) where people are known and referred to almost exclusively by their given name/s.

Some people (called anonyms) choose to be anonymous, that is, to hide their true names, for fear of governmental prosecution or societal ridicule of their works or actions. Another method to disguise one's identity is to employ a pseudonym.

Occasionally, a person is referred to by a single name. For example, Teller, of the magician duo Penn and Teller, has no given names. (His parents named him Raymond Joseph Teller but he legally changed his name to "Teller". In official government documents (such as his driver's license) his given name is listed as NFN, meaning "no first name". Arvind of MIT CSAIL is another example.

The Inuit believe that the souls of the namesakes are one, so they traditionally refer to the junior namesakes, not just by the names (atiq), but also by kinship title, which applies across gender and generation without implications of disrespect or seniority. In Judaism, someone's name is considered intimately connected with his fate, and adding a name (e.g. on the sickbed) may avert a particular danger. Among Ashkenazi Jews it is also considered bad luck to take the name of a living ancestor, as the Angel of Death may mistake the younger person for his namesake (although there is no such custom among Sephardi Jews). Jews may also have a Jewish name for intra-communitary use and use a different name when engaging with the Gentile world. Chinese children are called insulting names to make them appear worthless to evil spirits. They receive a definitive name as they grow up.[citation needed] Chinese and Japanese emperors receive posthumous names. In some Polynesian cultures, the name of a deceased chief becomes taboo. If he is named after a common object or concept, a different word has to be used for it.

Depending on national convention, additional given names (and sometimes titles) are considered part of the name.




英语姓名的一般结构为:教名+自取名+姓。如 William Jafferson Clinton。
但在很多场合中间名往往略去不写,如 George Bush,而且许多人更喜欢用昵称
取代正式教名,如 Bill Clinton。上述教名和中间名又称个人名。现将英语民族
的个人名、昵称和姓氏介绍如下:

I. 个人名

  按照英语民族的习俗,一般在婴儿接受洗礼的时候,由牧师或父母亲朋为其
取名,称为教名。以后本人可以在取用第二个名字,排在教名之后。
英语个人名的来源大致有以下几种情况:

1. 采用圣经、希腊罗马神话、古代名人或文学名著中的人名作为教名。
2. 采用祖先的籍贯,山川河流,鸟兽鱼虫,花卉树木等的名称作为教名。
3. 教名的不同异体。
4. 采用(小名)昵称。
5. 用构词技术制造新的教名,如倒序,合并。
6. 将母亲的娘家姓氏作为中间名。

  英语民族常用的男子名有:James, John, David, Daniel, Michael, 常见的
女子名为:Jane, Mary, Elizabeth, Ann, Sarah, Catherine.

II. 昵称

  昵称包括爱称、略称和小名,是英语民族亲朋好友间常来表示亲切的称呼,
是在教名的基础上派生出来的。通常有如下情况:

1. 保留首音节。如 Donald => Don, Timothy => Tim. 如果本名以元音开头,
则可派生出以'N'打头的昵称,如:Edward => Ned.
2. +ie 或 -y 如:Don => Donnie, Tim => Timmy.
3. 采用尾音节,如:Anthony => Tony, Beuben => Ben.
4. 由一个教名派生出两个昵称,如:Andrew => Andy & Drew.
5. 不规则派生法,如:William 的一个昵称是 Bill.

III. 姓氏

  英国人在很长的一段时间里只有名而没有姓。直到16世纪姓氏的使用才广泛
流行开来。英语姓氏的词源主要有:

1. 直接借用教名,如 Clinton.
2. 在教名上加上表示血统关系的词缀,如后缀-s, -son, -ing;前缀 M'-, Mc-,
Mac-, Fitz- 等均表示某某之子或后代。
3. 在教名前附加表示身份的词缀,如 St.-, De-, Du=, La-, Le-.
4. 放映地名,地貌或环境特征的,如 Brook, Hill等。
5. 放映身份或职业的,如:Carter, Smith.
6. 放映个人特征的,如:Black, Longfellow.
7. 借用动植物名的,如 Bird, Rice.
8. 由双姓合并而来,如 Burne-Jones.
英语姓氏虽然出现较教名晚,但数量要多得多。常用的有:Smith, Miller,
Johnson, Brown, Jones, Williams.

IV. 几点说明

1. 较早产生的源于圣经,希腊罗马神话的教名通常不借用为姓氏。
2. 英国人习惯上将教名和中间名全部缩写,如 M. H. Thatcher;美国人则习惯
于只缩写中间名,如 Ronald W. Reagan。
3. 在姓名之前有时还要有人际称谓,如职务军衔之类。Dr., Prof., Pres. 可以
用于姓氏前或姓名前;而Sir 仅用于教名或姓名前。

引自“英语姓名小常识

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