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青山妩媚

新的一年,新的心情,新的挑战,新的起点...

 
 
 

日志

 
 

China's CRO industry booms as pharma demand heats up  

2009-09-10 18:17:18|  分类: Bio-Pharma |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

Big Pharma's need to cut development spending and boost its presence in big new markets is driving sizzling hot growth rates for China's contract research organizations. Ranjith Gopinathan, senior research analyst at Frost & Sullivan, projects that China's CROs devoted to late-stage research will boom along at an 18 percent annual growth rate, with revenue projected to grow from $145 million to $240 million by 2012.

"(The) CRO industry in China as a whole is still young and fragmented, but they anticipate a quick ramp up toward standardization and global competitiveness," Mandy Chui, global leader for emerging markets at IMS Health, tells Reuters.

Modular R&D says that there are at least 138 CROs in China, but nailing down hard numbers is difficult. Only one of these CROs, WuXi, is public. But it seems clear that the early work they offered in biology and chemistry is making way for more lucrative contracts to undertake preclinical drug studies and human trials. And U.S.-based CROs like Charles River are responding by going where the clients are. The company has already built one facility in Shanghai and is now blueprinting a second.


Over the years, Chinese CROs have focused on relatively inexpensive areas such as biology and chemistry -- including screenings of chemicals to identify combinations with potential as medicines. They have also worked on manufacturing active pharmaceutical ingredients for generic drugs.

Experts said an increasing number of CROs in China, local and foreign-based, are moving into more lucrative stages of the drug development chain. They include preclinical studies, such as toxicology and other animal research, as well as human studies.

James Foster, chief executive of Charles River, estimates toxicology demand will surge "significantly" in 2010. "We would anticipate all the businesses we do in the U.S. and Europe we will eventually do in China," Foster said in an interview. His company built a new preclinical facility in Shanghai in January and is planning to build a second site in China.

China's annual market for toxicology -- studies that typically use animals and are designed to root out serious side effects of drugs early in the game -- is worth about $20 million. But it may jump to $200 million in five to seven years, said Joe Herring, chief executive of Covance. Covance's CRO business in China should be profitable this year, with revenue doubling in 2010, he said.

With an abundant supply of primates, and less animal-rights advocacy, China has become a favorable destination for animal testing, said Frank Zhang, chief executive of GenScript, a biology CRO with operations in the United States and China.

To sell existing drugs to China, multinational drugmakers are required to conduct additional testing to obtain local approvals. Ronny Krishana, senior director of strategy and business development at Pfizer, said his company plans to collaborate with more than 500 hospitals and 2,000 doctors on at least 135 local clinical trial programs in 2010.

"Our investment in local clinical trials in China has increased dramatically in recent years," Krishana said.

Despite the growth potential, Frost & Sullivan's Gopinathan warned that concern over intellectual property, a limited number of qualified research sites and long approval processes for clinical trials would hold back China's CRO market.

Still, the CROs are moving drug development in China into a more sophisticated and possibly more lucrative stage.

"China's drug development industry can help the country build a new brand that is known for innovation and quality, so that 'made in China' will no longer be synonymous with manufacturing cheap products," said Charles Huang, an executive with Sundia MediTec Company, a Shanghai-based CRO. (Editing by Steve Orlofsky)


Blind, deaf, blink, twinkle, wink, squint, dumb, mute, mutter, murmur, mumble, turn a blind eye to.., go blind, blind spot, wink at somebody, wink at something,

Blind date: A social engagement between two persons who have not previously met, usually arranged by a mutual acquaintance. Either of the persons participating in such a social engagement.

Murmur, mutter, mumble

都含“低声说”的意思。

murmur指“发低沉连续的声音”, 特指“连续低声地说”, :

murmur a prayer

低声祈祷。

mutter指“轻声含糊地说”、“喃喃自语”,:

She muttered to herself.

她喃喃自语。

mumble 指“含糊地说”, :

He mumbled a few words and left.

他咕哝了几句便走了。

mutter and mumble

吞吞吐吐

mutter away to oneself

喃喃自语

the murmur of bees in the garden

花园中蜜蜂的嗡嗡声

a murmur of thanks

道谢的低语声

cardiac murmur

心杂音

murmur a prayer

低声作祈祷

murmured his approval.

小声表示赞同

murmur at [against]

...发牢骚; 抱怨

as deaf as an adder

全聋

as deaf as a post

全聋

as deaf as a door

全聋

as deaf as  a door-post

全聋

be deaf of  an  ear

聋了一只耳朵

be deaf of  one ear

聋了一只耳朵

be deaf in an  ear

聋了一只耳朵

be deaf in one ear

聋了一只耳朵

None so deaf as those that won't hear.

[]不肯倾听别人意见的人是最聋的人。

stone deaf

完全聋的

deaf and dumb

聋哑的

be deaf to advice

不听劝告

deaf-and-dumb alphabet (=manual alphabet)

(聋哑人用的)指语字母

the deaf

blinked back the tears.

止住眼泪

blink ugly facts.

拒绝承认丑陋的事实

on the blink: Out of working order.

失调:不能正常工作

I'll be back in a blink.

我马上回来

(at) blink at the harsh light

眯着眼看那刺目的光

blink at the law

无视法律

blink one's eyes

眨眼

blink the light

打灯光信号

You can't blink that fact.

你不能忽视那个事实。

in a blink (=like a blink)

[]立刻, 马上

in a twinkle (=in the twinkle of an eye)

一眨眼工夫

on the blink

(机器、仪表)出毛病, 坏了

不舒服

without a blink of qualm

不在乎, 很镇静

blink at

惊愕地看, ...睁一眼闭一眼, 熟视无睹=turn a blind eye to..

wink at: To pretend not to see:

装作没看见:

winked at corruption in the ministry.

对于部里的渎职现象视而不见

wink out

To come to a close; end.

终止,了结,结束

qualms of homesickness.

思乡症

wink at a person

向某人眨眼示意

wink at slight errors

对小错误假装没有看见

The stars winked.

星在闪烁。

Iwinked as close as ever I could.

我尽量紧闭了眼睛。

The lights winked.

灯光熄灭了。

A wink is as good as a nod (to a blind horse [man, bat, beggar])

[]对瞎马点头眨眼全部都一样(反正看不见); 勿需多说; 一暗示就明白。

(as) quick as wink

转瞬之间, 很快地

forty winks

[]小睡, 打盹, [美口]一会儿; 很短的时间

in a wink

转瞬间, 一眨眼工夫, 很快地

not be able to see a wink

什么都看不见, 一点光线都没有

not get [have] a wink of sleep (=not sleep a wink)

一会儿也没睡, 没合眼

tip sb. the [a] wink (=give sb. the wink)

[]向某人使眼色; 向某人递暗号; 通知某人一声

wink at

...使眼色

...睁一只眼闭一只眼, 假装没看见

 

Body, chest, breast (woman), abreast, bosom, bust, bra, brassiere, knee, stomach,

have cold feet (害怕畏缩),

My foot! 胡说!真是笑话!

Foot it=go somewhere on foot

Foot the bill=pay

Hope chest: is used by a young woman for clothing and silver, in anticipation of marriage.嫁妆箱

Hope to hell, to dead, hope against hope,

Thank you in anticipation. Tremendous thanks in advance!

先致谢意。

by anticipation

预先, 事先

in anticipation (of)

预先; 预料, 期待

 

Bold, brave, bravery, valiant, coward, cowardly, cowardice, make/be so bold, brass-visaged, brazen, unduly, impudent, brave to defy convention,

Cowards are cruel.

[]胆小鬼总是残忍的。

Cowards die many times before their deaths.

胆小鬼在死去以前, 就已经死过许多次了(指胆小者往往遇事怕死)。

as bold as brass

莽撞; 无礼; 厚脸皮 a bold and impudent child

in bold outline

轮廓鲜明的print in bold type 用粗体字印刷 a bold cliff 陡峭的悬崖 Einstein was also a bold mathematician. 爱因斯坦也是一位富于想象力的数学家。

be (so) bold to

; 擅自; 冒昧

make bold to

胆敢; 冒昧

make so bold as to

胆敢; 冒昧

make bold with

...放肆无礼, 擅自使用

Excuse my liberties.

请原谅我的冒昧。

at liberty

自由, 随意; 闲着

be at liberty to(do)

被允许; 可随意

get one's liberty

获得自由

set at liberty

释放; 解放

take -ties

(with)(对人)过于随便; 过分亲昵; 无礼

随意对待; 随意改变; 歪曲

take the liberty of doing sth.

冒昧行事

take the liberty to do sth.

冒昧行事

"L-or death " (=Give me liberty or give me death)

不自由, 毋宁死

 

Breakfast, breakdown, daybreak, cracker, firecracker, break in, break up with somebody(分手), smash, bang, bump, clash, collide, crash, destroy, fragment, knock, ruin, shatter, strike, smash=smack+mash,

give me a break!—够了,住嘴!=shut up!

Mash:

[]调情, 调情者, 情人

beat the garlic into mash

把蒜捣成蒜酱

mash note

[美俚]肉麻的恭维信

make a mash on

[美俚]使爱上, 使看中

be mashed on

[]爱上(某人)

make one's mash

[]使人倾倒, 使人追求

dog's breakfast

[]乱七八糟

dog's dinner

[]乱七八糟

donkey's breakfast

(睡觉用的)草垫

草帽

mule's breakfast

(睡觉用的)草垫

草帽

Laugh before breakfast, you'll cry before supper.

[]笑得早也哭得早; 乐极生悲。

Give him an inch and he'll take a yard [mile].

得寸进尺。

man the yard

【航海】行登舷致敬礼

Yardstickstandard

Side-to-side, head-to-head, head-to-toe

a bit hot

[]有点不讲理

be getting hot

快猜中了, 快找到了

blow hot and cold

动摇不定; 拿不定主意, 反复无常

get hot

()发热[]; 激动起来

[]使劲儿干

接近(猜到, 找到)

get it hot

[]大受申斥, 挨一顿臭骂

get too hot for sb.

叫某人呆不下去; 对某人太危险

give it hot to sb.

[]痛打某人一顿, 狠狠训(某人)一顿

go hot and cold

感到身上一阵冷一阵热

in the hot test

最激烈的时候

make it hot for sb.

[]刁难某人, 使某人受不了

not so hot

普普通通

并不怎么高明或不怎么成功

piping hot

[]滚热的; 非常新鲜的

squat  hot

[美俚]被电刑处死

hot and bothered

[]焦虑不安

hot and cold

(旅馆等的)冷热水

hot and heavy

激烈的[]; 猛烈的[]

hot and hot

[](饭菜等)热腾腾地(端上来); 才出锅(就端上来)

hot and strong

[]猛烈的[]; 激烈的[]

hot on

...非常严厉, 非常苛刻

...穷追不舍

热衷于...

精通

hot one

[]非凡的人; 荒唐的事; 有趣的新闻

 

Burst, bust, robust, blast, burn, bury, burial, burn up/down/out

Bust: A woman’s bosom or a human’s chest, a sculpture of upper half of body; variant of burst,

a fraternity beer bust.

社友啤酒狂欢

robust labor.

强体力劳动

a robust tale.

粗俗的故事

a robust wine.

醇厚的葡萄酒

burst with anger

勃然大怒

burst into tears

放声大哭

burst into the room

闯入房间

at a burst

一阵; 一口气; 一举; 一下

at one burst

一阵; 一口气; 一举; 一下

be bursting to do

渴望, 急着要做(某事)

be bursting to do sth.

渴望, 急着要做(某事)

go burst

[]破产, 失败

go on the burst

[]闹饮

in sudden bursts

忽冷忽热地工作

一阵一阵地

burst away

急速四散

burst forth

突然爆发出; 喷出

突然出现

大声喊叫, 突然说出

忽然跳出

burst in

闯入; 突然出现; 突然...起来; 突然发作

burst into

闯入; 突然出现; 突然...起来; 突然发作

burst in upon/on

打断(谈话等), 打扰, 突然出现; 突然到达

burst oneself

(过劳)伤身

burst open

推开; 忽然打开; 裂开

burst out

大呼; 惊叫; 冲出; 突然发作

burst out of

冲出; 用力解脱

长得过大或过胖而不适于

burst through

冲开; 冲破; 拨开

burst up

硬裂, 爆炸

(使)垮台, (使)失败, (使)破产

burst upon

突然来到

(思想)突然出现

袭击

burst on

突然来到

(思想)突然出现

袭击

burst with

显示富足

几乎装不下, 充满

full blast: At full speed, volume, or capacity:

turned the radio up full blast; played the stereo at full blast.

把收音机拧到最大音量;把立体音响开到最大音量

blast off: To take off, as a rocket.

prospects for peace blasted;

和平的前景破灭了;

blighted hopes;

破灭的希望;

dashed ambitions;

落空的抱负;

plans that were nipped in the bud;

计划流产,被扼杀在摇篮里;

a wrecked life.

被毁的生活。

burial case

[]棺材

burial ground [place]

埋葬地, 墓地

burial service

葬礼

deep earth burial

地下深部埋藏(放射性废物)

ocean (sea) burial

海洋排放; 海洋埋藏

burial of an ass

野葬(不用任何棺木, 只把尸体象垃圾似的丢在野外)

be buried alive

被活埋

隐居

buried under

...所压倒, 沉浸于, 忙于

bury (oneself) in doing=be buried in doing

埋头于; 专心于

退居于(乡间等)

bury the hatchet: To stop fighting; resolve a quarrel.

媾和,言归于好:停止战争;解决争端

claw hatchet

拔钉斧

Tobacco hatchet (spud)

烟草小斧[铲凿]

hatchet job

恶毒的诽谤

hatchet man

职业凶手

hatchet-faced

adj. 脸瘦削的

bury the hatchet

休战; 和解, 言归于好

dig up the hatchet

开战, 宣战

take up the hatchet

开战, 宣战

Fling/sling/throw the hatchet: fling=sling=throw

[]吹牛, 夸张; 谈荒诞的故事

 

Camp, campus, campaign, champion, champagne, shampoo, tent, picnic, pole, movement, map out a campaign, the May Fourth Movement, summer camp,

Poles apart: adv. 截然相反, 南辕北辙, 大相径庭

Under bare poles: (船只航行因强风)不张帆, 束手无策,任其发展,赤裸裸地, 光秃秃地

bean pole 豆架, [, ]瘦长个子

up the pole 精神轻度不正常, 不知所措, 走投无路,

wouldn't touch sb. with a 10-foot pole

[]碰也不想碰某人[某物], 根本不想同某人[某物]沾边

wouldn't touch sth. with a barge-pole

[]碰也不想碰某人[某物], 根本不想同某人[某物]沾边

barge about [around]

乱碰乱撞

barge in [into]

闯入, 乱插嘴

barge into [against]

...相撞; 碰上

bell tent

中间只有一根支柱的圆帐蓬

tent bed

行军床; 帐蓬式卧床

tent fly

帐蓬盖

tent guy

帐蓬支索

tent peg [pin]

帐蓬桩子

tent pegging

跑马拔桩游戏

tent show

帐蓬下的户外演出

tent stitch

(刺绣)斜向平行针脚

pup [shelter] tent

小帐篷

pitch one's tent

定居, 住下来, 搭帐篷 pitch campstrike camp

strike a tent

撤营, 收拾帐篷转移

as black as pitch

漆黑的

touch pitch

参加干坏事; 与坏人有来往

Touch pitch, and you will be defiled.(=You can't touch pitch without being defiled.)

近朱者赤, 近墨者黑。

 

Can: 中空狭长柱状物 cane, candle, canoe, canal, ditch, channel,

As … as ever you could, as … as can be, as … as possible, can’t be better: 再好不过了

a dead lift

(不用机械)硬搬

需要全力以赴的难事

give sb. a lift

让某人搭车

帮某人一把

on the lift

[美方]虚弱的[], 弱不经风的[]

thumb a lift

(伸出翘起拇指的拳头向司机示意)要求搭车; 搭乘便车

lift down

(用于将东西)搬下去; 从高处搬到低处

lift off

(火箭, 导弹等)发射, (直升飞机等)起飞

lift up

举起, 提起, 使振奋, 使受到鼓舞

lift a voice or cry

高声喊叫

lift a sentence out of context

断章取义地抽出一句来

This box is too heavy for me to lift.

这箱太重我搬不起。

We lifted the students to Shanghai.

我们把学生运送到上海。

 

Don't gamble with your future.

不要拿你的前途去冒险。

on a gamble

[美、口]冒险地, 碰运气地, 胡乱地

on the gamble

贪赌

take a gamble

冒险从事(某事)

take a gamble on sth.

冒险从事(某事)

gamble away

乱花; 滥用; []

gamble on

...押在, ...上进行赌博, 投机, 碰运气, 存侥幸心理

 

Endow, bequeath, contribute, furnish, give, invest, provide, supply, sponsor

Dow= [](= be able to), i.e.=id est =that is =that is to say

Avast! int. !且慢!

something else【非正式用语】

One that is very special or quite remarkable:

非常特殊或者非常了不起的人(或事物):

Her new film is something else.

她的影片非常独特

something of

To some extent:

在某种程度上:

Our professor is something of an eccentric.

我们教授的性情多少有点儿古怪

play (a good) knife and fork

(胃口很好地)饱餐一顿,痛痛快快地吃}

fork over/out/up

[](不情愿地)交出, 交付, 放弃

In the realm of, in the region of,

safety first

安全第一

First think and then speak.

先考虑, 后开口。

He said he would die first.

他说他宁死不屈。

first quarter

(特指钻石、珍珠等)最好质量; 头等(光泽最纯) 上弦日子

First Republic

(法兰西)第一共和国(1792-1804)

first water

[] 第一流, 最优秀;[]极端

Judge not of men and things at first sight.

[]评人论事, 莫靠初见。

first-aid

adj.

急救的

first-begotten

adj.

最初生产的

first-born

adj.,n.

头生的(子女)

first-chop

n.

(=first-class)一级, 头等

first-class

adj.

头等的, 第一流的

第一类的

at first

首先, 最初

be the first to (do)

最先...

come in first

获第一名

come out first

, 获胜; 考第一名

from first to last

自始至终; 一直

from the first

从头, 自始

the first but one

第二

the first but two

第三

the first but three

第四

first and foremost

[first of all]首先, 第一

first and last

总的说来, 主要地, 始终, 完全

First come, first served.

[]先到先接待。

first, midst and last

彻头彻尾, 始终, 一贯

first, last and all the time

[]始终一贯, 绝对

first of all

第一, 首先

first off

马上, 立刻

first or last=sooner or later

[古、罕]早晚, 迟早

 

Care, caution, cautious, discreet, meticulous, scrupulous, punctilious, painstaking, careful, fastidious, cure, heal, therapy, treat, take care of = take charge of = be in charge of, take care of oneself, care for,

It is one’s treat!请客

treated her sister to the theater.

请她妹妹去看戏

treated herself to a day in the country.

她花了一天时间在乡间游玩

treats his guests with courtesy;

殷勤地招待他的客人;

dealt rationally with the problem;

理智地对待这个问题;

handling a case with discretion.

treat sb. as a friend

把某人当作朋友

treat a substance with acid

用酸处理一种物质

treat a case of cancer

治疗一例癌症

treat sb. to an ice-cream

请某人吃一杯冰淇淋

treat a theme realistically

写实地描述一个主题

I'll treat myself to a sunbath.

我要好好地享受一次日光浴。

at a discreet distance

小心地保持距离

Whose turn is it to treat next?

下次该谁请客?

This is my treat.

这次由我请客。

It is a treat to meet you.

见到你真高兴。

a children's [school] treat

儿童远足

a fair treat

十分令人满意的事物或人

Dutch treat

各人自己付钱的聚餐

get on a fair treat

[英俚]进步很快

stand treat

[]负担请客的费用, 请客

treat of

论述, 论及

treat oneself to

舍得(吃、穿等)

treat sb. white

[]正直、诚恳地对待某人

treat to

款待, 招待

treat with sb.

与某人谈判, 与某人交涉, 与某人交易

go Dutch

To pay one's own expenses on a date or outing.

各付各的钱,平摊费用:约会或郊游时各付各的钱

in Dutch

In disfavor or trouble.

失宠或陷入麻烦

beat the Dutch

[美俚]空前出众; 干的事叫人惊叹

do a Dutch

逃走

自杀

do the Dutch

逃走

自杀

do a Dutch act

逃走

自杀

do the Dutch  act

逃走

自杀

double Dutch

糊涂话, 莫名其妙的话

go Dutch

[美口](聚餐等)各人自付钱

High Dutch

高地(德国中部南部)德语

in Dutch

碰到麻烦; 处境困难

得罪(某人); 丢脸; 受气; 为难; 失宠 ; 在狱中

Low Dutch

低地(德国沿海)德语

one's old Dutch

[], 老婆

Pennsylvania Dutch

宾夕法尼亚东部的人

上述居民使用的高地德语方言

上述居民的民间艺术特点

The Dutch have taken Holland.

老话! 并非新奇!

 

Cave, cavity, cleavage, cleave, collapse, lapse, leak, hole, pit, hollow, cave man,

Hole-and-corner adj.秘密的, 偷偷摸摸的

lapse into reverie.

陷入冥想

a lapse into barbarism.

倒退到野蛮状态

a lapse from grace.

名誉扫地

a lapse of the tongue

失言

after a lapse of five years[months]

事隔五年[]之后

lapse from good virtue into vice

堕落, 变坏

lapse into idleness

渐渐变懒

lapse backward

落后

lapse into ruin

塌成 一片废墟

I fear she has lapsed again.

我怕她又失检了。

with the lapse of time

随着时间的推移; 逐渐

lapse from virtue

堕落; 道德败坏

lapse of memory

遗忘, 记错

lapse of the pen

写错, 笔误

lapse of time

时光的流逝, 一段时间

 

Centre=center, central, centralism, concentrate, centralize, coverage, verge, border, edge, margin, marge, focus, converge, converge at a point, on the verge of, concentrate on, middle, hub,

Come and sit in the middle! 坐到中间来. Center the picture on the wall!

 

Certain, certainty, uncertain, curtain, drape, screen,

For/of/to a certainty= for certain adv.

的确; 必然; 毫无疑问

in the certainty

必定

moral certainty

确实有把握的事

Make certain:=make sure

Sure thing:必然之事

It is certain that… (not sure!!)

 

Class, classical, classify, in class, table tennis,

be in class by oneself: 独一无二

Jason always sleeps in class and drives the teacher crazy. 让老师抓狂

 

Clear, clean, sweep, cleaner, clever, neat, tidy, trim, put away, clean up, wash out, clear up, clear away.

neat whiskey.

纯威士忌

neat profit.

纯利润

That was a neat party. Wonderful, terrific

那是一次很好的聚会

neat ,tidy ,trim ,shipshape ,spick-and-span ,spruce ,trig

These adjectives mean marked by good order and cleanliness.

 Neat implies a pleasingly clean and orderly condition:

a neat room;

neat hair.

Tidy emphasizes precise arrangement and order:

When she saw me come in tidy and well dressed, she even smiled” (Charlotte Bront?).

 Trim stresses especially smart appearance resulting from neatness, tidiness, and pleasing proportions:

A trim little sailboat was dancing out at her moorings” (Herman Melville).

 Shipshape evokes the meticulous order and neatness that might be found aboard a ship:

We'll try to make this barn a little more shipshape” (Rudyard Kipling).

 Spick-and-span suggests the immaculate freshness and cleanliness of something new:

young men in spick-and-span uniforms” (Edith Wharton).

 Spruce implies neatness and smartness, as of dress or appearance:

a good-looking man; spruce and dapper, and very tidy” (Anthony Trollope).

 Trig suggests sprightly smartness:

the trig corporal, with the little visorless cap worn so jauntily” (William Dean Howells).

 

Climate, weather, whether, temperature, warm, cool, cold, temper, thermometer, freezing,

Have/get/run a temperature= catch a cold, take one’s temperature 量体温

Tropical climate area, foggy, hot, humid, rainy

 

Close, closure, disclose, shut, shutter, shuttle, close by/down/to

shuttle bus

[]区间(公共汽)

shuttle train

[]短程往返火车

break sb.'s close

侵入某人的土地

bring to a close

算完, 结束

come to a close

算完, 结束

have one's eyes closed

看不见; 不肯看, 不管, 不理会

with one's eyes closed

看不见; 不肯看, 不管, 不理会

close about

包围, 围住; 逼近...周围

close around

包围, 围住; 逼近...周围

close round

包围, 围住; 逼近...周围

close down

(工厂等的)关闭, 停歇; 封闭

(夜的)降临

(电台的)停止播音

close down on

限制, 禁止; 抓牢, 逼迫

close in

围拢; 迫近, 围上来

(白天)渐短

close upon

围拢; 迫近, 围上来

(白天)渐短

close it up

靠拢

close off

结(帐)

隔离, 封锁, 阻塞

停止

close on

围拢, 围上来; 隐没; 同意

close upon

围拢, 围上来; 隐没; 同意

close out

抛售

停止, 停闭(业务)

close over

封盖; 淹没; 遮蔽

close up

靠紧, 靠近

关闭, 停歇

停止; 结束; 堵塞

(伤口)愈合

(排球等运动中)封网

close upon

(手)握紧(某物)

(眼向着某物)渐闭

(夜)渐深

...关在外面[里面]; (箱子)关着

close with

靠近, 逼近

接受, 答应, 谈妥

突击, ...肉搏

close end conclude terminate

都含“完毕”, “终了”的意思。

close指“终止”、“结束”, 如:She closed her speech with a funny joke. 她滑稽地一笑, 结束了发言。 end指“结束”、“突然停止”, 如:Let's end the argument. 让我们结束辩论吧。conclude 系正式用语, 表示“结束”、“完成”, 指“正式会议、事务等结束”或“达成协议(决定)”, 如:conclude the negotiation 结束谈判。terminate 指“(时间上)使结束”、“(空间上)使终止”, 如: The gallery was terminated by folding doors. 走廊尽头是折门。

Begin, start commence

 

Clothing, clothes, cloth, clothe, clad, dress, coat, sweater, pants, costume, fiber, fabric, texture, stuff, clothes hanger,

a costume ball; a costume play.

化妆舞会;古装剧

academic costume

学位服

In national costume

actors in policemen's costumes

穿着警服的演员

costume ball

化装跳舞会

costume designer

(影剧)服装设计员

costume piece [play]

古装戏

be clothed on

穿衣服; 被覆盖; 使带有

be clothed upon

穿衣服; 被覆盖; 使带有

be clothed with

...所覆盖, 长满; 蒙受

赋有(品格等); 被赋予(权力等)

hang out one's clothes

晒衣服

put on [take off] one's clothes

穿[脱]衣服

clothes man    marge

[]旧衣商

clothes moth

(蛀蚀衣服的)蠹虫

all cloth made

满帆; 鼓着风

American cloth

彩色漆布(主要作台布用)

back cloth

背景幕

bound in cloth

布面装订的

carry much cloth

张大风帆

cut from the same cloth

一路货色, 一丘之貉, 气味相投

cut out of the same cloth

一路货色, 一丘之貉, 气味相投

cut one's coat according to one's cloth

量布裁衣, 量入为出

draw the cloth

(饭后)收拾餐桌

have a cloth in the wind

帆篷因过于顶风而颤动

[口]有点醉意

[俚]穿破烂衣服

shake a cloth in the wind

帆篷因过于顶风而颤动

[口]有点醉意

[俚]穿破烂衣服

lay the cloth

准备开席

make out of whole cloth

凭空捏造

out of the whole cloth

[]彻头彻尾(瞎说、胡诌等)

Oxford cloth

牛津衬衫布

renounce the cloth

(修士等)还俗

tea cloth

小台布

the green cloth

[口]牌桌

弹子台, (打台球用的)台子

wear the cloth

穿上教士的衣服, 当教士

trees clothed in leafy splendor;

笼罩在光彩中的密叶丛生的树木;

mist that cloaks the mountains;

笼罩了山脉的雾;

a beam draped with cobwebs;

挂满了蜘蛛网的房梁;

a boulder mantled with moss;

长满青苔的鹅卵石;

snow robing fields and gardens. unclothe

白雪覆盖的田野和花园

bore the pants off sb.

[]使某人异常腻烦

catch sb. with his pants down

出其不意地对某人下手; 使某人来不及对付

hot pants

(妇女穿在外边的)紧身短裤

热切, 急切(尤指性欲要求)

色鬼

keep your pants on

别慌, 沉住气, 别着急

keep your shirt on

别慌, 沉住气, 别着急

scare the pants off sb.

[]把某人吓得要命

frighten the pants off sb.

[]把某人吓得要命

wear the pants

(妇女)掌权当家

wear the trousers

(妇女)掌权当家

with one's pants down

冷不防地

出其不意地

Fine clothes make the man! 佛要金装人要衣装,人要衣裳马要鞍。

ready rhino=cash, money=rhino

现钱

cheat death.

免于一死

Informal To be sexually unfaithful:

【非正式用语】 在性关系上不忠:

young marrieds who cheat on their spouses.

对配偶不忠实的已婚青年们

cheat a person

骗人

cheat sb.(out) of money

骗某人的钱

cheat the customs

混过海关

cheat the journey

消磨旅途的寂寞

cheat the weary night

消磨长夜

The criminal cheated the law by suicide.

罪犯以自杀逃脱法律制裁。

put a cheat on

使...上当, 欺骗

topping cheat

[]绞刑架[]

trine to the (nubbing) cheat

被处以绞刑

cheat in (business)

(做生意)行骗

cheat on

...不忠

cheat sb. into

哄骗某人...

cheat sth. of  sb.

骗人的东西

cheat sth. out of sb.

骗人的东西

be jealous of sb.'s fame

妒忌某人的名声

with jealous care

小心翼翼地

An honorable Chinese citizen should be jealous of his own rights.

一名光荣的中国公民应当珍惜自己的公民权利。

I am jealous of you.

我真羡慕你。

congratulate oneself on

庆幸, 感到幸运

We congratulated him on having passed the examination.

我们祝贺他通过了考核。

Kinda adv. 有一点, 有几分(=kind of)

confession of faith

信仰声明(获准入教前所作)

make (an) confession

坦白; 交代

C-is the first step to repentance.

[]认罪是悔罪的第一步; 悔过必先认错。

Open confession is good for the soul.

[]直认无讳, 身心泰然。

I have two confessions to make.

as a whole

All parts or aspects considered; altogether:

disliked the acting but enjoyed the play as a whole.

不喜欢表演但整体上喜欢这个剧

on the whole

on the whole, a happy marriage.

总的看来,是个幸福的结合

In most instances or cases; as a rule:

can expect sunny weather, on the whole.

大体上会有睛朗的天气

disquisition on [about] a question

关于某一问题的专题论文

counter measure

对策, 防范措施

flame front

火焰锋, 火焰前缘

give rise to

v.引起, 使发生

 

 

 

 

temper
v.tr.
1. To modify by the addition of a moderating element; moderate: "temper its doctrinaire logic with a little practical wisdom" (Robert H. Jackson). See synonyms at moderate.
2. To bring to a desired consistency, texture, hardness, or other physical condition by or as if by blending, admixing, or kneading: temper clay; paints that had been tempered with oil.
3. To harden or strengthen (metal or glass) by application of heat or by heating and cooling.
4. To strengthen through experience or hardship; toughen: soldiers who had been tempered by combat....

Usage: To temper can mean either to make softer (more moderate) or to make harder.

Contronym? Antagonym? Janus word? Whatever you call them, these possibly most confusing words in existence bear two meanings that are the reverse of one another.

continue v.tr.
1. To carry forward; persist in: The police will continue their investigation.
2. To carry further in time, space, or development; extend.
3. To cause to remain or last; retain.
4. To carry on after an interruption; resume.
5. Law. To postpone or adjourn.

garnish

  1. To enhance in appearance by adding decorative touches; embellish: a coat that was garnished with a fur collar.
  2. To decorate (prepared food or drink) with small colorful or savory items: garnished the potatoes with parsley.
  3. Law. To garnishee.

Usage: To garnish can mean to add (as chives to a soup) or to subtract (as money from wages).

cleave
cleave 1
v.tr.
1. To split with or as if with a sharp instrument.
2. To make or accomplish by or as if by cutting: cleave a path through the ice.
3. To pierce or penetrate: The wings cleaved the foggy air....
cleave 2
intr.v.
1. To adhere, cling, or stick fast.
2. To be faithful: cleave to one's principles.

Usage: To cleave: to tear apart or keep together.

 

This week, we'll look at some interesting words that appeared online recently — words unfamiliar enough to have us reaching for the dictionary (online, of course).

plumcot
The original cross between a plum and an apricot, created by renowned American horticulturist
Luther Burbank. There are now several varieties of this fruit, all of which are a cross of these two fruits. All types of this cross, particularly the plumcot, have an intensely sweet and fruit flavor that, though akin to that of its parents, is likened to an incomparable blend of fruit juices. The true plumcot, with its generally equal heritage of plum and apricot, has a plumlike shape, smooth, dark red skin and an almost spicy flesh....

prolix

  1. Tediously prolonged; wordy: editing a prolix manuscript.
  2. Tending to speak or write at excessive length. See synonyms at wordy.

Usage: The word prolix appeared here in a column entitled "Stung by the Perfect Sting."

encomium

  1. Warm, glowing praise.
  2. A formal expression of praise; a tribute.

Usage: The word encomium appeared here in an article entitled "Ted Kennedy, Liberal Lion Of the Senate."

traduce
To cause humiliation or disgrace to by making malicious and false statements. See synonyms at malign.

Usage: The word traduce was spotted online here in an obituary for "Edward Rondthaler, Foenetic Speler."

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