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青山妩媚

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Bretton Woods agreement  

2010-11-13 21:26:43|  分类: 外语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Currently all the conference / event requests from different parties will be funneled to my team here. But certainly we may not know everything in every region. So your input and suggestions are welcomeWe're on this seesaw. Beachhead. This technology will usher in a new era in science. has an international pedigree. A one-of-a-kind event, The tussle between Ramius and Cypress Bioscience continues today. 

Bretton Woods agreement

An agreement signed in 1944 that outlined rules and regulations for an international monetary system. It established a fixed exchange rate linked to the U.S. dollar, with other countries pegging their currency to the dollar. It created the International Monetary Fund (IMF), as well as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), a precursor for the modern World Bank. By the 1970s the fixed exchange rate collapsed, as the U.S. was no longer willing to exchange the dollar for gold. The agreement was so named because it was signed in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire.

FOMC

Federal Open Market Committee. A 12-member committee which sets credit and interest rate policies for the Federal Reserve System. This committee consists of 7 members of the Board of Governors, and 5 of the 12 Federal Reserve Bank Presidents. This group, headed by the Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board, sets interest rates either directly (by changing the discount rate) or through the use of open market operations (by buying and selling government securities which affects the federal funds rate). The discount rate is the rate at which the Federal Reserve Bank charges member banks for overnight loans. The Fed actually controls this rate directly, but it tends to have little impact on the activities of banks because these funds are available elsewhere. This rate is set during the FOMC meetings by the regional banks and the Federal Reserve Board. The federal funds rate is the interest rate at which banks loan excess reserves to each other. While the Fed can't directly affect this rate, it effectively controls it through the way it buys and sells Treasuries to banks. There are 8 scheduled FOMC meetings during the course of each year. However, when circumstances dictate, the Fed can make inter-meeting rate changes.

convertible hedge

An arbitrage strategy which involves buying a convertible security while simultaneously selling short the same company's common stock. This strategy involves identifying stocks that are mispriced by the market, shorting the stock and buying a convertible security issued by that company. Having sold the stock short, the investor puts proceeds in an interest-bearing account. If the stock price stays the same, then the investor will earn interest on the short sale proceeds and interest on the convertible security, while paying fees to the lender of the stock. In most cases, this situation will lead to a positive net cash flow. If the stock price rises, then the investor gains on the convertible stock, but loses (hopefully a smaller amount) on the short sale position. If the stock price falls, the price of the convertible falls, but the value of the convertible will never fall below the value that an ordinary bond issued by the company would have. On the other hand, the investor makes a gain on the short position (hopefully more than the amount lost on the convertible). A convertible hedge is considered a relatively safe strategy, but choosing which ones to pursue is complex and so convertible hedges are done primarily by professional investment managers who are supported by powerful analytical tools.


Long story short, …(长话短说)

The hand is promise, the other one is break it.

 

Save it for the date. It is real turning point for you. The little boy’s room (washroom). Folk wisdom. wallet; purse; moneybag, burse, imburse, reimburse, melon,

The above opinion asks respectfully for reference.

Some ideas are listed here, but NOT limiting to these. 

Please reach out to them. We have not tapped into that market well. You find fault with everything;. Freaky brain. speak frankly and sincerely; be frank and above-board; have a frank and straight talk; in all sincerity and frankness; lay all the cards on the table; make a frank statement without reservations; open oneself; open one's heart to sb.; speak candidly and honestly about ...; talk frankly without hedging about; talk it over plainly; wear one's heart on one's sleeve.

DDU – Delivered Duty Unpaid (named destination place)

This term means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer to the named place of destination in the contract of sale. The goods are not cleared for import or unloaded from any form of transport at the place of destination. The buyer is responsible for the costs and risks for the unloading, duty and any subsequent delivery beyond the place of destination. However, if the buyer wishes the seller to bear cost and risks associated with the import clearance, duty, unloading and subsequent delivery beyond the place of destination, then this all needs to be explicitly agreed upon in the contract of sale.

DDP – Delivered Duty Paid (named destination place)

This term means that the seller pays for all transportation costs and bears all risk until the goods have been delivered and pays the duty. Also used interchangeably with the term "Free Domicile". The most comprehensive term for the buyer. In most of the importing countries, taxes such as (but not limited to) VAT and excises should not be considered prepaid being handled as a "refundable" tax. Therefore VAT and excises usually are not representing a direct cost for the importer since they will be recovered against the sales on the local (domestic) market.

the music of the original song and the lyrics. refine the pitch. humor disturbs slumber,

Logical, not chronological, order, chip, leverage, speechless,

I am really swamped now. I heard a lot of you. You watch, you learn. (耳濡目染)

Watch your mouth! Mean a lot to me! Tight is good! Drop by, stop by, crap, good sales have good attention. Have no shame. Potato, potato, no money, no honey. Yammy, yakki, we share blood and history.

 


《旗开得胜》——修改歌词版

创业路上热血 澎湃

披荆斩棘梦想 未来

See the champions

Take the field now

Unify us

Make us feel proud

头昂起来畅爽开怀

天涯不过你我胸怀

Celebration it surrounds us

Every nation all around us

青春是一首歌

迎着光让我们一起唱

看世界就在我们脚下

把梦踢到天际无限大

一起唱

汗让梦茁壮

你让我成长

旗像风翅膀

你给我力量

Flag

So wave your flag

Now wave your flag

Now wave your flag

Now wave your flag

汗让梦茁壮

你让我长成

旗像风翅膀

你给我力量

Flag

So wave your flag

Now wave your flag

Now wave your flag

Now wave your flag

━━≡Music≡━━

创业路上热血澎湃

披荆斩棘梦想未来

See the champions

Take the field now

Unify us

Make us feel proud

头昂起来畅爽开怀

天涯不过你我胸怀

你是兄弟来自四海

心连起来为你喝彩

Staying forever young

Singing songs underneath the sun

看世界就在我们脚下

把梦踢到天际无限大

一起唱

汗让梦茁壮

你让我成长

旗像风翅膀

你给我力量

Flag

So wave your flag

Now wave your flag

Now wave your flag

Now wave your flag

汗让梦茁壮

你让我成长

旗像风翅膀

你给我力量

Flag

So wave your flag

Now wave your flag

Now wave your flag

Now wave your flag

━━≡Music≡━━

一起唱

汗让梦茁壮

你让我成长

旗像风翅膀

你给我力量

 

Flag

So wave your flag

Now wave your flag

Now wave your flag

Now wave your flag

汗让梦茁壮

你让我成长

旗像风翅膀

你给我力量

Flag

So wave your flag

Now wave your flag

 


 

direct purchase program

A SEC-regulated program which enables a company to sell shares of stock directly to investors, rather than through a broker, enabling the investors to avoid paying a commission. Direct purchase programs are a good way to invest small amounts since you don't even have to be a current shareholder in order to purchase the shares. The company will not charge you a commission, but they may charge you a small fee in order to set up a stock purchase account. also called Direct Stock Purchase Plan (DSP).

term certain method

A distribution calculation method for retirement accounts based on life expectancy. The first year's distributions are calculated based on current life expectancy, and the distributions in each successive year are calculated based on the original life expectancy minus the number of years that have passed

Bank Examiner

Individual who reviews a bank's operations, such as lending policies, guidelines, and practices. Such examiners are employed by a Federal Reserve Bank, and typically have had extensive education in finance or accounting. A Bank Examiner's work involves granting or redoing applications for setting or expanding companies that provide banking services, supervising member banks to ensure compliance with regulations, monitor a member banks' operating systems, designing regulations and monitoring the internal functions of the specific Reserve Bank that they are associated with.

annual exclusion

The maximum amount that a person is allowed to give another person without incurring Federal gift tax. The current annual exclusion is $11,000 per year per recipient. There is no limit on the number of these gifts you can make to different people in a year. To qualify, a gift must be of a "present interest," meaning that the recipient can make use of the gift immediately, and the donor must not have any control over the asset after it is given.

rate of exchange

Rate at which one currency may be converted into another. Generally, one unit of the home currency is expressed in terms of another currency. For example, an American bank may quote the exchange rate between the dollar and the Yen as the number of dollars needed to buy one yen. also called exchange rate or foreign exchange rate or currency exchange rate.

dawn raid

A term (commonly used in Britain) describing a raider's instruction to one or more brokers to purchase as many available shares as possible in a target company as soon as the market opens for the day. This enables the raider to build a significant position before the target company is aware of the takeover attempt.

Chartered Life Underwriter

CLU. A designation granted by the American College in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania to individuals who have completed training in life insurance and personal insurance planning. To obtain the designation, individuals have to complete advanced courses and exams in several topics including insurance, investments, taxation, employee benefits, estate planning, accounting, management and economics.

spot next

The purchase of a currency that is to be delivered the day after the spot date. The delivery price is adjusted to account for the change in delivery date. For example, a spot one-week contract will result in the delivery of a currency one week after the spot date.

relative strength

A stock's price change over a period of time relative to that of a market index, such as the S&P 500. The relative strength of a stock is calculated by taking the percentage price change of a stock over a set period of time and ranking it on a scale of 1 to 100 against all other stocks on the market, with 1 being worst and 100 being best. For example, a stock with a relative strength of 90 has experienced a greater increase in its price over the last year than the price increases experienced by 90% of all other stocks on the market. Some technical analysts, especially momentum investors, like stocks with high relative strength rankings, believing that stocks which have recently gone up are more likely to continue going up. Other technical analysts believe that a very high relative strength can be an indication that the stock is overbought and is ready to fall. Relative strength is really a "rear view mirror" metric, measuring only how the stock has done in the past, not how it will do in the future.

durable goods orders

A government report which measures consumer spending on long-term purchases, products that are expected to last more than three years. It is intended to offer a gauge of the future of the manufacturing industry. The report is made at 8:30 am EST around the 26th of each month and is thought to provide insight into the future for the manufacturing industry. The reports are broken down by industry, which helps to eliminate the effects of single volatile industries like defense spending.

parallel loan

An arrangement in which two companies in different countries borrow each other's currency for a given period of time, in order reduce foreign exchange risk for both of them. also called back-to-back loans.

municipal

Pertaining to city government, as opposed to state or national government. From the point of view of an investor, the municipal government is a very important entity since they are large issuers of tax-advantaged bonds. Municipal governments issue bonds (sometimes called "munis") to raise capital for their day-to-day activities, and for specific projects that they might be undertaking (usually pertaining to development of local infrastructure such as roads, hospitals, etc).

overwriting

Strategy of selling call or put options in quantity, hoping that they will not be exercised. Option writers do this when they suspect the underlying is incorrectly valued, and so the buyer will let the options expire and the writer will simply earn option premiums, but this is a risky strategy.

outright forward

The purchase or sale of a forward foreign exchange contract that locks in the rate and delivery date. also called currency forward.

Never ever, first request first get basis, tender (细皮嫩肉),bonny (婴儿肥)

- stock rating

An evaluation of a stock's expected performance and/or its risk level as judged by a rating agency such as Standard and Poor's. A stock rating will usually tell the investor how well a stock's market value relates to what analysts believe is a fair value for the stock, based on an objective evaluation of the company. The greater the amount by which the fair value exceeds the market value, the more highly recommended a buy the stock is. Conversely, if the market value of the stock exceeds the fair value of the stock, then analysts recommend that the stock be sold. Most stock rating systems give stocks one to five stars, with five being best. While some investors use a particular analyst's stock ratings as guidance, it is important to evaluate the criteria which they use to determine fair value, since the techniques they use are diverse and not all analysts are equally competent.

broker recommendation

An opinion given by an analyst to his/her clients about whether a given stock is worth buying or not. Wall Street investment firms employ thousands of analysts whose job is to issue reports and broker recommendations on specific stocks. These analysts typically look at the company's fundamentals and then build financial models in order to project future trends, most notably future earnings. They then use these projections as a basis for issuing broker recommendations on whether or not they think the stock should be bought or sold. Each brokerage has its own terminology, which makes it difficult to compare broker recommendations between brokerages, but the most common ratings are (in descending order of quality) strong buy, buy, hold, and sell. also called recommendation.

reverse split

A stock split which reduces the number of outstanding shares and increases the per-share price proportionately. This is usually an attempt by a company to disguise a falling stock price, since the actual market capitalization of the stock does not change at all. For example, if a company declares a one-for-ten reverese split, then a person who previously held 20 shares valued by the market at $1 each will then have 2 shares worth $10 each. Many stock exchanges in the U.S. do not allow companies with a stock price of less than $1 to remain listed, and many such companies then have to undertake reverse splits if they want to remain listed.

gold standard

A monetary system that backs its currency with a reserve of gold, and allows currency holders to convert their currency into gold. The U.S. went off the gold standard in 1971.

vertical spread

An option strategy involving the simultaneous purchase and sale of options of the same class and expiration date but different strike prices. also called price spread.

permitted currency

A minor foreign currency that is allowed to be converted into a major currency, such the U.S. dollar.

dollar drain

A situation in which a country's imports from the U.S. exceed their exports to the U.S., which results in a reduction in their dollar reserves. The idea can also be applied to currencies of other countries.

municipal bond fund

A mutual fund which invests in municipal bonds. These bond funds are popular among investors in high income tax brackets because they are exempt from federal taxes and, in some cases, from state taxes as well. As with U.S. government bond funds, the underlying securities in municipal bond funds are backed by the government and thus are considered to have a high credit rating. However, municipalities have been known to declare bankruptcy on occasion, making these funds more risky than U.S. government bonds. also called muni fund.

compliance

The state of being in accordance with the relevant Federal or regional authorities and their requirements. In the context of financial services, the most important compliance rules come from the Securities and Exchange Commission. Most large financial services companies have compliance teams whose role is to take an independent stance in making sure that the company is following all the necessary rules and regulations.

double taxation

Taxation of the same earnings at two levels. One common example is taxation of earnings at the corporate level and then again at the shareholder dividend level. Another example is taxation of foreign investments in the country of origin and then again upon repatriation, although many countries have signed agreements to prevent this latter type of double taxation.

Federal Reserve System

The central banking system of the U.S., comprised of the Federal Reserve Board, the 12 Federal Reserve Banks, and the national and state member banks. Its primary purpose is to regulate the flow of money and credit in the country. The Federal Reserve was established in 1913 to maintain a sound and stable banking system throughout the United States and to promote a strong economy. The Board of Governors is made up of 7 members that are appointed to 14-year terms by the President and approved by the Senate. Almost all U.S. banks are a part of the Federal Reserve System, which requires that those banks maintain a certain percentage of their assets deposited with the regional Federal Reserve Bank. These "reserve requirements" are set by the Board of Governors and by changing the requirements, the Federal Reserve System can greatly impact the amount of money supply in the economy. The Federal Reserve System has several functions. First, it serves as a bank for banks: many transactions between banks are processed through the Federal Reserve System. Financial institutions are also able to borrow money through the Federal Reserve, but only after attempting to find credit elsewhere; the Federal Reserve System provides credit only when it cannot be found in the markets or in cases of emergency. Second, the Federal Reserve System acts as the government's bank. The tax system processes incoming and outgoing payments through a Federal Reserve checking account. The Federal Reserve also buys and sells government securities. The Fed even issues the U.S. currency, although the actual production of the currency is handled elsewhere. Third, the Federal Reserve System acts as a regulatory agency. The Fed polices the banking industry to make sure that things run smoothly and that the rights of consumers are protected.

interest rate cap

A provision of an adjustable rate mortgage limiting how much interest rates may increase in a single adjustment period.

An options contract which puts an upper limit on a floating exchange rate. The writer of the cap has to pay the holder of the cap the difference between the floating rate and the reference rate when that reference rate is breached. There is a premium to be paid by the buyer of such a contract in order to gain the certainty of a maximum payout.

dutch disease

The deindustrialization of a nation's economy that occurs when the discovery of a natural resource raises the value of that nation's currency, making manufactured goods less competitive with other nations, increasing imports and decreasing exports. The term originated in Holland after the discovery of North Sea gas.

Unit Investment Trust

UIT. An SEC-registered investment company which purchases a fixed, unmanaged portfolio of income-producing securities and then sells shares in the trust to investors. The major difference between a Unit investment Trust and a mutual fund is that a mutual fund is actively managed, while a unit investment trust is not managed at all. Capital gains, interest and dividend payments from the trust are passed on to shareholders at regular periods. If the trust is one that invests only in tax-free securities, then the income from the trust is also tax-free. A unit investment trust is generally considered a low-risk, low-return investment. Some investors prefer UITs to mutual funds because UITs typically incur lower annual operating expenses (since they are not buying and selling shares); however, UITs often have sales charges and entrance/exit fees. also called fixed investment trust or participating trust or unit trust.

all or none

A stipulation of a buy or sell order which instructs the broker to either fill the whole order or don't fill it at all; but in the latter case, don't cancel it, as the broker would if the order were fill or kill.

A term used in underwriting indicating that if the underwriter isn't able to sell all the shares offered, then the offering will be canceled.

currency risk

The risk that a business' operations or an investment's value will be affected by changes in exchange rates. For example, if money must be converted into a different currency to make a certain investment, changes in the value of the currency relative to the American dollar will affect the total loss or gain on the investment when the money is converted back. This risk usually affects businesses, but it can also affect individual investors who make international investments. also called exchange rate risk.

American Depositary Receipt

ADR. A negotiable certificate issued by a U.S. bank representing a specific number of shares of a foreign stock traded on a U.S. stock exchange. ADRs make it easier for Americans to invest in foreign companies, due to the widespread availability of dollar-denominated price information, lower transaction costs, and timely dividend distributions.

We have juggled around and squeezed out some budget to do that.

flow of funds

For municipal bonds, a statement that specifies the priorities for which the revenue will be used. Usually, the flow of funds goes from maintenance and operation to bond debt service to facility expansion to savings for prepayment of debt. For mutual funds, the movement of money into and out of mutual funds.

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