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青山妩媚

新的一年,新的心情,新的挑战,新的起点...

 
 
 

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Suicide/超辣和homicide/中辣  

2010-12-28 18:10:46|  分类: 外语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Your way out! (你解脱的方法) a big deal: 大人物,大事件。It is not a big deal! 没什么大不了的。没事儿!past is past.

Mater, material, maternal…touch base,

I sure hope you can visit the Boston area one of these days so that I can repay your hospitality. Someday,

We also manage to have distributors in all other countries.  After all, at all, exactly, under the sun,

Apologies for the abrupt approach.  I came across your linkedin profile.

Refreshment, snack, dessert

Howdy ladies! =how do you do! Sorry I've been out of touch lately. I've been super busy with training and travel. Purchasing Power Parity,简称PPP.

Representative Nancy Pelosi was re-elected as the House Democratic leader on Wednesday despite a striking show of unrest among members of her caucus following the Democrats' heavy losses in the midterm elections. Pelosi, a woman who, as Speaker of the House, became a lightning rod for public anger over some of the sweeping and costly legislation passed during the past two years.

weak dollar

Dollar that can be exchanged for only a small or decreasing?amount of?foreign currency. A weak dollar?means that the?U.S. dollar cannot?buy very much of another?currency. The?strength of the dollar has an?impact on?imports and?exports because?goods and?services from a foreign?nation are usually purchased in the currency of the producing nation. A weak dollar usually?leads to?high exports and?low imports. opposite of?strong dollar. Unanimous,

The move had important symbolic impact, signaling the bank is willing to take action to spur the ailing economy despite the risks of deflation from further cuts in interest rates. Wall Street Extends Its Rally. 
Steven Rattner, the former car czar, has agreed to settle a kickback case.
Two months, nine days and eight hours after their excruciating ordeal began, the last of the 33 miners trapped.
The documents paint an even more lurid picture of abuse by America's Iraqi allies – a brutality from which the Americans at times averted their eyes.
Still struggling to gain recovery momentum, the United States economy grew at a fairly tepid 2 percent annual rate in the third quarter.
It signals an end to an unusually long and unusually bitter feud between the cable company and Fox's parent company, the News Corporation.
Mr. Sorensen said he suspected the headline on his obituary would read: "Theodore Sorenson, Kennedy Speechwriter," misspelling his name and misjudging his work. "I was never just a speechwriter," he said in an interview with The New York Times in 2007. He was best known for working with Mr. Kennedy on passages of soaring rhetoric, including the 1961 inaugural address proclaiming that "the torch has been passed to a new generation of Americans" and challenging citizens: "Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country." 
Kiplagat, 31, has had a phenomenal year.
American Stock Exchange 
AMEX. The second-largest stock exchange in the U.S., after the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). In general, the listing rules are a little more lenient than those of the NYSE, and thus the AMEX has a larger representation of stocks and bonds issued by smaller companies than the NYSE. Some index options and interest rate options trading also occurs on the AMEX. The AMEX started as an alternative to the NYSE. It originated when brokers began meeting on the curb outside the NYSE in order to trade stocks that failed to meet the Big Board's stringent listing requirements, but the AMEX now has its own trading floor. In 1998 the parent company of the NASDAQ purchased the AMEX and combined their markets, although the two continue to operate separately. also called The Curb.
discount 
The amount by which a bond's par exceeds its market price.
The amount by which the Net Asset Value per share of a closed-end fund's holdings exceeds its market price.
Anything selling below its normal price. opposite of premium.
In the case of a convertible security, the difference between the gross proceeds received on sale and the convertible's price. This difference occurs whenever the market expects that the convertible security will be redeemed before the next coupon date, and so investors will receive accrued interest.
Friday's Featured Funny Definition - poverty 
Having too much month left at the end of the money. 
currency convertibility 
The ability to exchange money for gold or other currencies. Some governments which do not have large reserves of hard currency foreign reserves try to restrict currency convertibility, since they are not in a position to handle large currency market operations to support their currency when necessary.
30-day wash rule 
IRS rule forbidding a taxpayer from claiming a loss on the sale of an investment if that same investment was purchased within 30 days before or after the sale date. The purpose of the rule is to discourage investors from selling at a loss just to get the tax benefit. also called 30-day wash sale rule.
trader 
One who buys and sells securities for his/her personal account, not on behalf of clients.
An investor who holds stocks and securities for a short period of time (a few minutes, hours or days). The goal is to profit from short-term gains in the market. The stock selection is generally based on technical analysis or charting which relate only to the stock price rather than a fundamental evaluation of the company as a business. The IRS offers some tax benefits to traders: they can deduct their interest expense without itemizing, and seminar costs can be deducted as well as home office expenses in connection with investing.
American-style option 
An option which can be exercised at any time between the purchase date and the expiration date. Most options in the U.S. are of this type. This is the opposite of a European-style option, which can only be exercised on the date of expiration. Since an American-style option provides an investor with a greater degree of flexibility than a European style option, the premium for an American style option is at least equal to or higher than the premium for a European-style option which otherwise has all the same features. also called American option.
health insurance 
Insurance against loss by illness or bodily injury. Health insurance provides coverage for medicine, visits to the doctor or emergency room, hospital stays and other medical expenses. Policies differ in what they cover, the size of the deductible and/or co-payment, limits of coverage and the options for treatment available to the policyholder.
basis 
Purchase price, including commissions and other expenses, used to determine capital gains and capital losses for tax purposes. This can be determined by several methods. For a purchased investment, the basis is the amount paid. If inherited, the basis is the value of the stock on the date of the original owner's death. If received as a gift, the basis is the amount that was originally paid for the investment, unless the market value of the investment on the date the gift was given was lower. also called cost basis or tax basis.
accounts receivable financing 
The selling of a company's accounts receivable, at a discount, to a factor, who then assumes the risk of the account debtors and receives cash as the debtors settle their accounts. A firm that sells its accounts receivable may not be confident of its ability to collect those debts, or might think that the cost of collecting that debt is more than the discount which must be provided to the factor when of selling their receivables. also called accounts receivable financing.





forward deal 
A transaction consisting of a purchase or sale (often of foreign currency) with settlement to occur at a specified future date. Such a transaction will state the specific amount of the asset to be delivered at the specific time, as well as the unit price at which it will be delivered.
expiration date 
The date on which an option, right or warrant expires, and becomes worthless if not exercised. For stock options, this is the third Saturday of the month in which the contract expires, or the third Thursday of the month if the third Friday is a holiday.
secured bond 
Bond backed by collateral, such as a mortgage or lien, the title to which would be transferred to the bondholders in the event of default. The most common form of secured bonds are mortgage bonds. These bonds are backed by real estate or physical equipment that can be liquidated. These are thought to be high-grade, safe investments. Other bonds are secured by the revenues created by projects. If an issuer in default has both secured and unsecured bonds outstanding, secured bondholders are paid off first, then unsecured bondholders. Naturally, because unsecured bonds carry greater risk than secured bonds, they usually pay higher yields.
trustee in bankruptcy
Court-appointed trustee who will administer the affairs of a bankrupt company or individual. A trustee in bankruptcy will act on behalf of the debtor to ensure that both the creditor's and debtor's interests are maintained in accordance with the rule of law, and often acts as a negotiator between the two.
indirect loan
Loan deal in which the actual?lender may not be known to the?borrower. For example, most automobile?purchase loans are not financed by the car?dealers (where the car?buyers fill out and submit the?loan applications) but by a?third party. This?party (usually a?finance company, called the loan?owner) is the one that approves the?loan terms, receives the loan?payments installments from the car buyers, and?sues defaulting borrowers.
credit score 
A measure of credit risk calculated from a credit report using a standardized formula. Factors that can damage a credit score include late payments, absence of credit references, and unfavorable credit card use. Lenders may use a credit score to determine whether to provide a loan and what rate to charge.
cash pooling 
A cash management technique employed by companies holding funds at financial institutions. Cash pooling allows companies to combine their credit and debit positions in various accounts into one account, and includes techniques like notional cash pooling and cash concentration. Notional cash pooling has the company combine the balances of several accounts in order to limit low balance or transaction fees. Cash concentration or zero balancing has the company physically combining various accounts into one single account.
online banking 
A system allowing individuals to perform banking activities at home, via the internet. Some online banks are traditional banks which also offer online banking, while others are online only and have no physical presence. Online banking through traditional banks enable customers to perform all routine transactions, such as account transfers, balance inquiries, bill payments, and stop-payment requests, and some even offer online loan and credit card applications. Account information can be accessed anytime, day or night, and can be done from anywhere. A few online banks update information in real-time, while others do it daily. Once information has been entered, it doesn't need to be re-entered for similar subsequent checks, and future payments can be scheduled to occur automatically. Many banks allow for file transfer between their program and popular accounting software packages, to simplify record keeping. Despite the advantages, there are a few drawbacks. It does take some time to set up and get used to an online account. Also, some banks only offer online banking in a limited area. In addition, when an account holder pays online, he/she may have to put in a check request as much as two weeks before the payment is due, but the bank may withdraw the money from the account the day that request is received, meaning the person has lost up to two weeks of interest on that payment. Online-only banks have a few additional drawbacks: an account holder has to mail in deposits (other than direct deposits), and some services that traditional banks offer are difficult or impossible for online-only banks to offer, such as traveler's checks and cashier's checks.
index arbitrage 
A strategy designed to profit from temporary discrepancies between the prices of the stocks comprising an index and the price of a futures contract on that index. By buying either the stocks or the futures contract and selling the other, an investor can sometimes exploit market inefficiency for a profit. Like all arbitrage opportunities, index arbitrage opportunities disappear rapidly once the opportunity becomes well-known and many investors act on it. Index arbitrage can involve large transaction costs because of the need to simultaneously buy and sell many different stocks and futures, and so only large money managers are usually able to profit from index arbitrage. In addition, sophisticated computer programs are needed to keep track of the large number of stocks and futures involved, which makes this a very difficult trading strategy for individuals.
consolidation 
The combining of separate companies, functional areas, or product lines, into a single one. Differs from a merger in that a new entity is created in the consolidation.
The process of maturation in some markets whereby smaller companies are acquired or run out of business, leaving only a few dominant players; here also called shakeout.
cash account 
A brokerage account in which the customer is required by Regulation T to pay the full amount due by the settlement date for securities purchased; buying on margin and borrowed money are not permitted. also called special cash account. Some types of accounts, such as Individual Retirement Accounts and Custodian for Minor accounts, must be cash accounts.
Fed funds rate 
The interest rate that banks charge each other for the use of Fed funds. It changes daily and is a sensitive indicator of general interest rate trends. The Fed funds rate is one of the two interest rates set by the Fed, the other being the discount rate. While the Fed can't directly affect this rate, it effectively controls it in the way it buys and sells Treasuries to banks. This is the rate that reaches individual investors, though the changes usually aren't felt for a period of time. also called Federal funds rate.
SPDR 
Spider. Shares of a security designed to track the value of the S&P 500. Spiders trade on the American Stock Exchange under the symbol SPY. One SPDR unit is valued at approximately one-tenth of the value of the S&P 500. Dividends are distributed quarterly, and are based on the accumulated stock dividends held in trust, less any expenses of the trust. also called Standard & Poor's Depositary Receipt.
offer 
The lowest price that any investor or dealer has declared that he/she will sell a given security or commodity for. For over-the-counter stocks, the offer is the best quoted price at which a Market Maker is willing to sell a stock. For mutual funds, the offer is the net asset value plus any sales charges. also called asked price or asking price or offering price or ask.
commodity 
A physical substance, such as food, grains, and metals, which is interchangeable with another product of the same type, and which investors buy or sell, usually through futures contracts. The price of the commodity is subject to supply and demand. Risk is actually the reason exchange trading of the basic agricultural products began. For example, a farmer risks the cost of producing a product ready for market at sometime in the future because he doesn't know what the selling price will be.
More generally, a product which trades on a commodity exchange; this would also include foreign currencies and financial instruments and indexes.
U.S. Treasury Bill 
A negotiable debt obligation issued by the U.S. government and backed by its full faith and credit, having a maturity of one year or less. U.S. Treasury Bills are exempt from state and local taxes. These securities do not pay a coupon rate of interest, and the interest earned is estimated by taking the difference between the price paid and the par value of the bond, and calculating that rate of return on an annual basis. Treasury Bills are considered the safest securities available to the U.S. investor, and so the yield on these securities are considered the risk-free rate of return. also called Bill or T-Bill or Treasury Bill.
capital market line 
A graph relating risk (as represented by the market portfolio's beta) and the required return for the market portfolio. This is a positive, linear relationship that originates from the Capital Market Asset Pricing theory which states that all investors will own the market portfolio (as opposed to single securities). However, the amount of risk they will take on is positively correlated to expected return, where expected return = risk-free rate + portfolio beta * (the difference between the expected returnon the market as a whole and the risk-free rate).
preferred shares 
Capital stock which provides a specific dividend that is paid before any dividends are paid to common stock holders, and which takes precedence over common stock in the event of a liquidation. Like common stock, preferred shares represent partial ownership in a company, although preferred stock shareholders do not enjoy any of the voting rights of common stockholders. Also unlike common stock, a preferred share pays a fixed dividend that does not fluctuate, although the company does not have to pay this dividend if it lacks the financial ability to do so. The main benefit to owning preferred share is that the investor has a greater claim on the company's assets than common stockholders. Preferred shareholders always receive their dividends first and, in the event the company goes bankrupt, preferred shareholders are paid off before common stockholders. In general, there are four different types of preferred stock: cumulative preferred, non-cumulative, participating, and convertible. also called preferred stock.
GDR 
Global Depositary Receipt. A negotiable certificate held in the bank of one country representing a specific number of shares of a stock traded on an exchange of another country. American Depositary Receipts make it easier for individuals to invest in foreign companies, due to the widespread availability of price information, lower transaction costs, and timely dividend distributions. also called European Depositary Receipt.
whole life 
Life insurance which provides coverage for an individual's whole life, rather than a specified term. A savings component, called cash value or loan value, builds over time and can be used for wealth accumulation. Whole life is the most basic form of cash value life insurance. The insurance company essentially makes all of the decisions regarding the policy. Regular premiums both pay insurance costs and cause equity to accrue in a savings account. A fixed death benefit is paid to the beneficiary along with the balance of the savings account. Premiums are fixed throughout the life of the policy even though the breakdown between insurance and savings swings toward the insurance over time. Management fees also eat up a portion of the premiums. The insurance company will invest money primarily in fixed-income securities, meaning that the savings investment will be subject to interest rate and inflation risk.
Incent, incentive, 

incentive stock option

ISO. A type of employee stock option which provides tax advantages for the employer that a non-qualified stock option does not, but which is subject to more stringent requirements. For ISOs, no income tax is due when the options are granted or when they're exercised. Instead, the tax is deferred until the holder sells the stock, at which time he/she is taxed for his/her entire gain. As long the sale is at least two years after the options were granted and at least one year after they were exercised, they'll be taxed at the lower, long-term capital gains rate; otherwise, the sale is considered a "disqualifying disposition", and they'll be taxed as if they were nonqualified options (the gain at exercise is taxed as ordinary income, and any subsequent appreciation is taxed as capital gains). ISOs may not be granted at a discount to the current stock price, and they are not transferable, except through a will. also called qualified stock option.

Global Depositary Receipt

Gross Domestic Product. The total market value of all final goods and services produced in a country in a given year, equal to total consumer, investment and government spending, plus the value of exports, minus the value of imports. The GDP report is released at 8:30 am EST on the last day of each quarter and reflects the previous quarter. Growth in GDP is what matters, and the U.S. GDP growth has historically averaged about 2.5-3% per year but with substantial deviations. Each initial GDP report will be revised twice before the final figure is settled upon: the "advance" report is followed by the "preliminary" report about a month later and a final report a month after that. Significant revisions to the advance number can cause additional ripples through the markets. The GDP numbers are reported in two forms: current dollar and constant dollar. Current dollar GDP is calculated using today's dollars and makes comparisons between time periods difficult because of the effects of inflation. Constant dollar GDP solves this problem by converting the current information into some standard era dollar, such as 1997 dollars. This process factors out the effects of inflation and allows easy comparisons between periods. It is important to differentiate Gross Domestic Product from Gross National Product (GNP). GDP includes only goods and services produced within the geographic boundaries of the U.S., regardless of the producer's nationality. GNP doesn't include goods and services produced by foreign producers, but does include goods and services produced by U.S. firms operating in foreign countries.

Special Drawing Right

SDR. An artificial currency unit based upon several national currencies. The Special Drawing Right serves as the official monetary unit of several international organizations and transactions and acts as a supplemental reserve for national banking systems.

ask size

The number of shares that are being offered for sale at the ask price, often expressed in terms of hundreds of shares. Some traders try to use the bid size and ask size to measure impending short term upward or downward pressure on the stock's price. This can work for stocks on exchanges such as NYSE and AMEX, but is far less useful on Nasdaq, which has market makers ready to buy and sell shares, rather than specialists who balance books of buy and sell orders.

economic value added

EVA. The monetary value of an entity at the end of an time period minus the monetary value of that same entity at the beginning of that time period.

For a company, after-tax earnings minus the opportunity cost of capital. As with any other entity, economic value added essentially measures how much more valuable a company has become during a given time period.

National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotations system-NASDAQ

Nasdaq. A computerized system established by the NASD to facilitate trading by providing broker/dealers with current bid and ask price quotes on over-the-counter stocks and some listed stocks. Unlike the Amex and the NYSE, the Nasdaq (once an acronym for the National Association of securities Dealers Automated Quotation system) does not have a physical trading floor that brings together buyers and sellers. Instead, all trading on the Nasdaq exchange is done over a network of computers and telephones. Also, the Nasdaq does not employ market specialists to buy unfilled orders like the NYSE does. The Nasdaq began when brokers started informally trading via telephone; the network was later formalized and linked by computer in the early 1970s. In 1998 the parent company of the Nasdaq purchased the Amex, although the two continue to operate separately. Orders for stock are sent out electronically on the Nasdaq, where market makers list their buy and sell prices. Once a price is agreed upon, the transaction is executed electronically.

checking account

An account which allows the holder to write checks against deposited funds. Checking accounts which pay interest are sometimes referred to as negotiable order of withdrawal (NOW) accounts. The interest rate often depends on how large the balance in the account is, and most charge a monthly service fee if the account balance falls below a preset level.

tax straddle

An investing technique which is undergone for the purposes of creating tax benefits. To do this, it involves purchasing specific futures or options contracts where the loss of one contract will balance out the gain of another contract, and push back the tax impact until the next year. This technique is no longer practiced, as laws have been passed which require most gains and losses to be realized at the end of the calendar year.

Calendar year, physical year, financial year,

Employee Stock Ownership Plan

ESOP. A trust established by a corporate which acts as a tax-qualified, defined-contribution retirement plan by making the corporation's employees partial owners. contributions are made by the sponsoring employer, and can grow tax-deferred, just as with an IRA or 401(k) plan. But unlike other retirement plans, the contributions must be invested in the company's stock. The benefits for the company include increased cash flow, tax savings, and increased productivity from highly motivated workers. The main benefit for the employees is the ability to share in the company's success. Due to the tax benefits, the administration of ESOPs is regulated, and numerous restrictions apply. also called stock purchase plan.

payout

A taxable payment declared by a company's board of directors and given to its shareholders out of the company's current or retained earnings, usually quarterly. Payouts are usually given as cash (cash dividend), but they can also take the form of stock (stock dividend) or other property. Payouts provide an incentive to own stock in stable companies even if they are not experiencing much growth. Companies are not required to pay payouts. The companies that offer payouts are most often companies that have progressed beyond the growth phase, and no longer benefit sufficiently by reinvesting their profits, so they usually choose to pay them out to their shareholders. also called dividend.

variable rate

Any interest rate or dividend that changes on a periodic basis. Variable rates are often used for convertibles, mortgages, and certain other kinds of loans. The change is usually tied to movement of an outside indicator, such as the prime interest rate. Movement above or below certain levels is often prevented by a predetermined floor and ceiling for a given rate. also called adjustable rate.

swap spread

The difference between the swap rate on a contract and the yield on a government bond of the same maturity. It is used to represent the risk associated with the investment, since changes in interest rates will ultimately affect return. Swap spreads are based on LIBOR rates, the creditworthiness of the swap's parties, and other economic factors that could influence the terms of the investment's interest rates.

authorized shares

The maximum number of shares of stock that a company can issue. This number is specified initially in the company's charter, but it can be changed with shareholder approval. Generally a much greater number of shares are authorized than required, to give the company flexibility to issue more stock as needed. also called authorized stock or shares authorized.

back-to-back loans

An arrangement in which two companies in different countries borrow each other's currency for a given period of time, in order reduce foreign exchange risk for both of them. also called parallel loans.

r-squared

A measurement of how closely a portfolio's performance correlates with the performance of a benchmark index, such as the S&P 500, and thus a measurement of what portion of its performance can be explained by the performance of the overall market or index. Values for r-squared range from 0 to 1, where 0 indicates no correlation and 1 indicates perfect correlation.

strike price

The specified price on an option contract at which the contract may be exercised, whereby a call option buyer can buy the underlier or a put option buyer can sell the underlier. The buyer's profit from exercising the option is the amount by which the strike price exceeds the spot price (in the case of a put), or the amount by which the spot price exceeds the strike price (in the case of a call). In general, the smaller the difference between spot and strike price, the higher the option premium. also called exercise price.

overnight limit

The maximum amount of currency positions that can be carried over from one trading day to another. The overnight limit is set by the Central Bank regulation the financial institution where the positions are held.

marketability

A measure of the ability of a security to be bought and sold. If there is an active marketplace for a security, it has good marketability. Marketability is similar to liquidity, except that liquidity implies that the value of the security is preserved, whereas marketability simply indicates that the security can be bought and sold easily.

reload option

An employee stock option granted upon the exercise of an option using shares already in the holder's possession. The reload option expires on the same date as the original option and its exercise price is equal to the price of the stock upon exercise of the original option.

clearing firm

An organization which works with the exchanges to handle confirmation, delivery and settlement of transactions. Such corporations play a key role in ensuring that executed trades are settled within a specified period of time and in an efficient manner. also called clearing corporation or clearing house.

knock-out option

An option that becomes worthless in the event that the underlying commodity or currency crosses a certain price level.

credit report

A report containing detailed information on a person's credit history, including identifying information, credit accounts and loans, bankruptcies and late payments, and recent inquiries. It can be obtained by prospective lenders with the borrower's permission, to determine his or her creditworthiness.

net capital ratio

SEC requirement that all broker/dealers maintain a ratio of no more than 15:1 between indebtedness and liquid assets. Indebtedness includes money owed to the firm, margin loans, and commitments to purchase securities. Liquid assets include cash and assets which are easily converted to cash. The purpose of this rule is to make sure that the broker/dealer will be able to maintain its operations and not adversely affect the capital markets even if it suffers a large amount of bad debt. called net capital rule.

exercise price

The specified price on an option contract at which the contract may be exercised, whereby a call option buyer can buy the underlier or a put option buyer can sell the underlier. The buyer's profit from exercising the option is the amount by which the spot price exceeds the exercise price (in the case of a call), or the amount by which the exercise price exceeds the spot price (in the case of a put). In general, the smaller the difference between spot and exercise price, the higher the option premium. also called strike price.

net proceeds

The amount of money received from a sale, after subtracting transaction costs. In the case of an investor selling securities, net proceeds is the total revenue from sales minus trading costs. In the case of an issuer of securities, net proceeds are the capital raised minus the costs of issuing the securities. For a property, net proceeds are the price of the house minus commissions, closing costs, costs of any repairs and inspections that may need to be undertaken, and realtor's charges.

basis trading

An arbitrage strategy usually consisting of the purchase of a particular security and the sale of a similar security (often the purchase of a security and the sale of a corresponding futures contract). Basis trading is done when the investor feels that the two securities are mispriced with respect to each other, and that the mispricing will correct itself such that the gain on one side of the trade will more than cancel out the loss on the other side of the trade. In the case of such a trade taking place on a security and the futures contract, the trade will be profitable if the purchase price plus the cost of carry is less than the futures price. also called cash and carry trade.

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