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青山妩媚

新的一年,新的心情,新的挑战,新的起点...

 
 
 

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How does laughter improve your health?  

2010-02-04 23:02:34|  分类: 外语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

How does laughter improve your health? It's not for nothing that they say "laughter is the best medicine." There are several ways laughing affects your body. First, it increases blood flow and circulation, helping to decrease the risk of cardiovascular problems. Second, when you laugh, you work stomach, legs, arms and face muscles — a good round of laughter is a great aerobic workout! And, after the workout, muscles remain relaxed for up to an hour. Third, laughing improves your resistance to disease by decreasing stress hormones and increasing immune cells and infection-fighting antibodies. Fourth, it releases endorphins which make us feel good and help to relieve pain. Today is Belly Laugh Day. Burst out laughing and feel better all over!
Quote: "He makes me laugh."Jessica Rabbit, when asked what she sees in her hapless husband in Who Framed Roger Rabbit?


Just a friendly reminder that you will not have to leave your office or home to network with peers and hear five exciting keynote presentations. Please contact me around 3 pm in the afternoon by cell phone so that we can avoid last minute changes. Please see the attached for reference, feel free to modify it as you see fit. He is requesting a free & quick fix of this problem. Wishing you a Happy, Successful and Prosperous 2010!

Please put together an excel table.

Please charge these purchases to my account.请将这些购货价款记在我的账上。

I charge you not to forget what l have said.我告诫你不要忘记我所说的话。

ever and anon now and anon: Time after time; now and then.一次又一次地;不时

Knowledge is pain. Happy ending then.

make sense of v.搞清...的意思

in the limelight[]处于舞台照明的地方,成为引人注目的中心,处于显要地位

dillydally vi.磨蹭, 三心二意地浪费时间

"Java and Jive" Discussion Groups:  Grab a cup of coffee and join a facilitated discussion group focused around specific scientific and technology related topics. This unique session allows conference participants to exchange ideas, experiences, and develop future collaborations around a focused topic. Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) is undoubtedly the "now-generation" -- alive, thriving, and driving discovery. Even as it untangles itself from the federal government, Citigroup has shown few signs of a quick recovery. You are a principal, but you have no principle. I would like to bring to your attention a rapid, high-purity, low-cost recombinant protein purification system. Jack can help you out here. Great to know! Let’s hope for the best.

 Glocal: global—local,

Bankers, traders and investors were surprised on Thursday when the president proposed prohibiting banks with federally insured deposits from speculating heavily in financial markets, and limiting further consolidation in the industry. Please feel free to forward me any suggestions you may have. Let's all work together to keep this group as friendly, helpful and effective as possible. Almost there with getting this project going.

I suspect that I may be better off going with another. 

Every now and then I run into things that are different than I am used to. I suggest I just share my thoughts with you, so you can decide if we need to change our procedures or not.

Point I want to make is that we should be very specific in our wording cost

and pricing


vendor, actual cost/ virtual cost,

tie up v.绑好, 缚牢, 包扎, 占用, 阻碍, 密切联系, 合伙, 停泊

be incident to易发生于, 随着...而来的, ...是难免的

without incident平安无事

an international incident.国际性事件a far-reaching overhaul

good point: 有道理

burglar alarm n.防盗自动警铃

Your kindness quite overwhelms me.你的好意使我感激难言。

 

403(b) plan

A retirement plan similar to a 401(k) plan, but one which is offered by non-profit organizations, such as universities and some charitable organizations, rather than corporations. There are several advantages to 403(b) plans: contributions lower taxable income, larger contributions can be made to the account, earnings can grow tax-deferred, and some plans allow loans. Contributions can grow tax-deferred until withdrawal at which time the money is taxed as ordinary income (which is sometimes a disadvantage).

fain
adverb
1. Willingly; gladly.
2. Rather.
adjective
1. Pleased.
2. Obliged.
3. Eager.
Etymology
From Middle English, from Old English faegen (glad).
Usage
"... for Europe was where they fain all would be." — Katherine Anne Porter; The Days Before; 1952.

asperity noun: Harshness or roughness.
Etymology
Via French from Latin asper (rough).
Usage
"We must expect posterity to view with some asperity the marvels and the wonders we're passing on to it; but it should change its attitude to one of heartfelt gratitude when thinking of the blunders we didn't quite commit." — Our Greatest Achievement; Piet Hein; Grooks.
"Dressed in Robert Jones's well-cut, earth-toned '60s' pantsuits, Lagerfelt wittily mixes languor and asperity." — David Benedict; Greta Garbo Came to Donegal; Variety (Los Angeles); Jan 13, 2010  

obscurantism noun:
1. Opposition to the spread of knowledge.
2. Being deliberately vague or obscure; also a style in art and literature.
Etymology
From Latin obscurare (to make dark).
Usage
"Jean Kirkpatrick possessed the rare gift of being able to write subtle and challenging studies of international politics and to formulate strikingly simple and apt phrases to cut through obscurantism and cant." — Joseph P. Duggan; Jeane Kirkpatrick Set a Very High Bar; St. Louis Post-Dispatch (Missouri); Dec 18, 2006.

sedulous
adjective: Involving great care, effort, and persistence.
Etymology
From Latin se (without) + dolus (trickery, guile). Ultimately from the Indo-European root del- (to count or recount) that is also the source of tell, tale, talk, and Dutch taal (speech, language).
Usage
"Elizabeth Bishop was sedulous, pernickety, quietly determined; she would work on poems for years." — Elizabeth Bishop and Robert Lowell; The Economist (London, UK); Nov 20, 2008.

price to earnings ratio

The most common measure of how expensive a stock is. The P/E ratio is equal to a stock's market capitalization divided by its after-tax earnings over a 12-month period, usually the trailing period but occasionally the current or forward period. The value is the same whether the calculation is done for the whole company or on a per-share basis. The higher the P/E ratio, the more the market is willing to pay for each dollar of annual earnings. The last year's price/earnings ratio (P/E ratio) would be actual, while current year and forward year price/earnings ratio (P/E ratio) would be estimates, but in each case, the "P" in the equation is the current price. Companies that are not currently profitable (that is, ones which have negative earnings) don't have a P/E ratio at all. also called earnings multiple or (P/E ratio).

surcease
noun: Stoppage, especially a temporary one.
verb tr., intr.: To bring or come to an end.
Etymology
From Middle English sursesen/surcesen, via French from Latin supersedere (to refrain from), from super- + sedere (to sit). Ultimately from the Indo-European root sed- (to sit) that is also the source of sit, chair,saddle, assess, assiduous, sediment, soot, cathedral, and tetrahedron.The word cease is unrelated, though its spelling has influenced the word.
Usage
"It was a labour without rest or surcease." — Canon Kik Woods; The Daily Telegraph (London, UK); Jan 16, 2008.   (?
Wordsmith.org)

lineament noun:
1. A distinctive feature, especially of a face.
2. A linear topographic feature, as of the earth.
Etymology
From Latin lineamentum (contour, outline), from lineare (to draw a line), from linea (line). Ultimately from the Indo-European root lino- (flax) that is also the source of line, align, lineage, linen, lingerie, lint, and linseed.
Usage
"A gleam of exultation shot across the darkly painted lineaments of the inhabitant of the forest." — James Fenimore Cooper; The Last of the Mohicans; 1826.
"The possibility that the lineament is a fault, and the possibility that it extends under Mt. Natib need urgently to be explored." — Kelvin S. Rodolfo; The Geological Hazards of the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant; The Philippine Star (Manila); Mar 5, 2009.   (?
Wordsmith.org)

gladsome adjective
Causing or showing joy.
Etymology
From Old English gloed. Ultimately from the Indo-European root ghel- (to shine) that is also the source of words such as yellow, gold, glimmer, glimpse, glass, arsenic, melancholy, and cholera
Usage
"The gladsome light of Jurisprudence." — Edward Coke; The First Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England; 1628; quoted in The Yale Book of Quotations.

watermark

An image on paper currency designed to differentiate officially sanctioned bills from counterfeit bills.

conversion price

The price at which a given convertible security can be converted to common stock. The conversion price is specified when the security is issued. The number of shares to be received is the principal amount of the security divided by the conversion price (after the conversion price is adjusted for stock splits anddividends).

Long-Term Equity Anticipation Securities

Global Depositary Receipt. A negotiable certificate held in the bank of one country representing a specific number of shares of a stock traded on an exchange of another country. American Depositary Receipts make it easier for individuals to invest in foreign companies, due to the widespread availability of price information, lower transaction costs, and timely dividend distributions. also called European Depositary Receipt.


strong dollar

Dollar that can be exchanged for a large or increasing amount of foreign currency. The strength of the dollar has an impact on imports and exports because goods and services from a foreign nation are usually purchased in the currency of the producing nation. For example, if the dollar were strong, one would expect imports to be high and exports to be low because the dollar will buy a lot in a different country while it is expensive to purchase dollars with outside currencies. Alternatively, with a weak dollar one would expect high exports and low imports. opposite of weak dollar

short-term debt

Debt with a short maturity, usually one year or less.

A part of a company's balance sheet within the current liabilities section. Short-term debt is usually due within one year. If a company has more short-term debt than available cash or investments to cover the debt's payments, the company could be forced to take on additional debt and could be in poor financial health.

living trust

A trust created for the trustor and administered by another party while the trustor is still alive. A living trust can be either revocable or irrevocable. A living trust avoids probate and therefore gets assets distributed significantly more quickly than a will does. It also offers a higher level of confidentiality, as probate proceedings are a matter of public record. Additionally, trusts are usually harder to contest than wills. On the downside, a living trust takes longer to put together than a will, and requires more ongoing maintenance. Although both a will and a living trust can be modified or revoked at any time before death, such changes are slightly more time-consuming for a living trust. Additionally, assets that a person wants to move to a living trust, such as real estate and bank or brokerage accounts, have to be retitled.

We could, we would!

circuit breaker

Any of a number of procedures implemented by a major stock or commodity exchange when a certain index falls a predetermined amount in a session, to prevent further losses. Examples include trading halts and restrictions on program trading.

margin call

A call from a broker to a customer (called a maintenance margin call) or from a clearinghouse to a clearing member (called a variation margin call) demanding the deposit of cash or marginable securities to satisfy the Regulation T requirements and the house maintenance requirement for the purchase or short sale of securities or to cover an adverse price movement. also called federal margin call or Reg. T Call (for NASD requirements) or house call (for brokerage requirements).

cyclical industry

An industry which is sensitive to business cycles and whose performance is tied to the overall economy, especially interest rates. Many cyclical industries produce durable, commodity-like goods such as raw materials, cars, chemicals, construction, paper, steel, and heavy equipment. Given the durable nature of the goods, such purchases often get postponed in poor economic conditions, but sell especially well in good economic conditions.

purchasing power parity

The theory that, in the long run, identical products and services in different countries should cost the same in different countries. This is based on the belief that exchange rates will adjust to eliminate the arbitrage opportunity of buying a product or service in one country and selling it in another. For example, consider a laptop computer that costs 1,500 Euros in Germany and an exchange rate of 2 Euros to 1 U.S. Dollar. If the same laptop cost 1,000 dollars in the United States, U.S. consumers would buy the laptop in Germany. If done on a large scale, the influx of U.S. dollars would drive up the price of the Euro, until it equalized at 1.5 Euros to 1 U.S. Dollar - the same ratio of the price of the laptop in Germany to the price of the laptop in the U.S. The theory only applies to tradable goods, not to immobile goods or local services. The theory also discounts several real world factors, such as transportation costs, tariffs and transaction costs. It also assumes there are competitive markets for the goods and services in both countries.

contingent on/upon...而定

contingent order

An order which is to be executed only if another order is executed first. An example of a contingent order would be to sell one specific security if another specific security has been bought. Brokers often do not like to work with these orders, given the uncertainty and extra work involved.

dividend per share

DPS. The amount of dividend that a stockholder will receive for each share of stock held. It can be calculated by taking the total amount of dividends paid and dividing it by the total shares outstanding. If a company issues a $1 million dividend and has 10 million shares, the dividend per share is 10 cents ($1 million divided by 10 million shares).

interest coverage ratio

A calculation of a company's ability to meet its interest payments on outstanding debt. Interest coverage ratio is equal to earnings before interest and taxes for a time period, often one year, divided by interest expenses for the same time period. The lower the interest coverage ratio, the larger the debt burden is on the company. also called interest coverage.


leaseback

Arrangement in which one party sells a property to a buyer and the buyer immediately leases the property back to the seller. This arrangement allows the initial buyer to make full use of the asset while not having capital tied up in the asset. Leasebacks sometimes provide tax benefits. also called sale and leaseback.

lead manager

The commercial or investment bank which has primary responsibility for organizing a given credit or bond issuance. This bank will find other lending organizations or underwriters to create the syndicate, negotiate terms with the issuer, and assess market conditions. also called syndicate manager, managing underwriter or lead underwriter.

ex-date

In a stock split, the date that the share price changes to reflect the split.

For a dividend, the first day of the ex-dividend period. The ex-date was created to allow all pending transactions to be completed before the record date. If an investor does not own the stock before the ex-date, he or she will be ineligible for the dividend payout. Further, for all pending transactions that have not been completed by the ex-date, the exchanges automatically reduce the price of the stock by the amount of the dividend. This is done because a dividend payout automatically reduces the value of the company (it comes from the company's cash reserves), and the investor would have to absorb that reduction in value (because neither the buyer nor the seller are eligible for the dividend). also called ex-dividend date.

sector

A distinct subset of a market, society, industry, or economy, whose components share similar characteristics. Stocks are often grouped into different sectors depending upon the company's business. Standard & Poor's breaks the market into 11 sectors. Two of these sectors, utilities and consumer staples, are said to be defensive sectors, while the rest tend to be more cyclical in nature. The other nine sectors are: transportation, technology, health care, financial, energy, consumer cyclicals, basic materials, capital goods, and communications services. Other groups break up the market into different sector categorizations, and sometimes break them down further into subsectors.

price-earnings ratio

The most common measure of how expensive a stock is. The P/E ratio is equal to a stock's market capitalization divided by its after-tax earnings over a 12-month period, usually the trailing period but occasionally the current or forward period. The value is the same whether the calculation is done for the whole company or on a per-share basis. The higher the P/E ratio, the more the market is willing to pay for each dollar of annual earnings. The last year's price/earnings ratio (P/E ratio) would be actual, while current year and forward year price/earnings ratio (P/E ratio) would be estimates, but in each case, the "P" in the equation is the current price. Companies that are not currently profitable (that is, ones which have negative earnings) don't have a P/E ratio at all. also called earnings multiple or (P/E ratio).

ask

The lowest price that any investor or dealer has declared that he/she will sell a given security or commodity for. For over-the-counter stocks, the ask is the best quoted price at which a Market Maker is willing to sell a stock. For mutual funds, the ask is the net asset value plus any sales charges. also called asked price or asking price or offering price.

exercise price

The specified price on an option contract at which the contract may be exercised, whereby a call option buyer can buy the underlier or a put option buyer can sell the underlier. The buyer's profit from exercising the option is the amount by which the spot price exceeds the exercise price (in the case of a call), or the amount by which the exercise price exceeds the spot price (in the case of a put). In general, the smaller the difference between spot and exercise price, the higher the option premium. also called strike price.

broad money

One measure of the money supply that includes M1, plus savings and small time deposits, overnight repos at commercial banks, and non-institutional money market accounts. This is a key economic indicator used to forecast inflation, since it is not as narrow as M1 and still relatively easy to track. All the components of M2 are very liquid, and the non-cash components can be converted into cash very easily.

corporate

Pertaining to corporations. Corporations are the most common form of business organization, and one which is chartered by a state and given many legal rights as an entity separate from its owners. This form of business is characterized by the limited liability of its owners, the issuance of shares of easily transferable stock, and existence as a going concern. The process of becoming a corporation, called incorporation, gives the company separate legal standing from its owners and protects those owners from being personally liable in the event that the company is sued (a condition known as limited liability). Incorporation also provides companies with a more flexible way to manage their ownership structure. In addition, there are different tax implications for corporations, although these can be both advantageous and disadvantageous. In these respects, corporations differ from sole proprietorships and limited partnership.

butterfly spread

An options strategy built on four trades at one expiration date and three different strike prices. For call options, one option each at the high and low strike price are bought, and two options at the middle strike price are sold. For put options, the trades are reversed. This is a limited risk, limited return strategy that pays off when the price of the underlier remains around the middle strike price. This strategy is essentially a combination of a bull and bear spread.

profit-sharing

An arrangement in which an employer shares some of its profits with its employees. The compensation can be stocks, bonds, or cash, and can be immediate or deferred until retirement. Profit-sharing allows for changing contributions each year. Contributions are determined by a formula to allocate the overall contribution and distribution of accumulated funds after the retirement age. Unless the plans are defined as an elective deferral plan, the contributions are not tax deductible. Contributions and earnings can grow tax-deferred until withdrawal.

hibernaculum noun
1. Winter quarters of a hibernating animal.
2. The protective covering of an animal or plant bud that protects it during its dormant stage in the winter.
Etymology
From Latin hibernaculum (winter residence), from hibernare (to spend the winter). Ultimately from Indo-European root ghei- (winter) that is the ancestor of words such as chimera (literally a lamb that is one winter, or one year old) and the Himalayas, from Sanskrit him (snow) + alaya (abode)
Also hibernacle.
Usage
"Ground squirrels, marmots, woodchucks and chipmunks retreat into underground hibernacula for five to seven months and cool their body temperatures by 30 to 40 deg. C." — Brian M. Barnes; How Animals Survive the Big Chill; The Washington Post;

straddle

The purchase or sale of an equal number of puts and calls, with the same strike price and expiration dates. A straddle provides the opportunity to profit from a prediction about the future volatility of the market. Long straddles are used to profit from high volatility. Long straddles can be effective when an investor is confident that a stock price will change dramatically, but cannot predict the direction of the move. Short straddles represent the opposite prediction, that a stock price will not change.

bid size

The number of shares that are being offered for purchase at the bid price, often expressed in terms of hundreds of shares. Some traders try to use the bid size and ask size to measure impending short term upward or downward pressure on the stock's price. This can work for stocks on exchanges such as NYSE and AMEX, but is far less useful on Nasdaq, which has market makers ready to buy and sell shares, rather than specialists who balance books of buy and sell orders.


forward price

The price specified in a forward contract for a specific commodity. The forward price makes the forward contract have no value when the contract is written. However, if the value of the underlying commodity changes, the value of the forward contract becomes positive or negative, depending on the position held. Forwards are priced in a manner similar to futures. As with a futures contract, the first step in pricing a forward is to add the spot price to the cost of carry (interest forgone, convenience yield, storage costs and interest/dividend received on the underlying). However, unlike a futures contract, the price may also include a premium for counterparty credit risk, and there is not daily marking-to-market to minimize default risk. If there is no allowance for these credit risks, then the forward price will equal the futures price.

Dead or dead

window-dressing

The deceptive practice of some mutual funds, in which recently weak stocks are sold and recently strong stocks are bought just before the fund's holdings are made public, in order to give the appearance that they've been holding good stocks all along.

The deceptive practice of using accounting tricks to make a company's balance sheet and income statement appear better than they really are.

liquidity risk

The risk that arises from the difficulty of selling an asset. An investment may sometimes need to be sold quickly. Unfortunately, an insufficient secondary market may prevent the liquidation or limit the funds that can be generated from the asset. Some assets are highly liquid and have low liquidity risk (such as stock of a publicly traded company), while other assets are highly illiquid and have high liquidity risk (such as a house).

charity

Something that begins at home, and usually stays there.

registered options principal

An employee of a brokerage firm who observes and regulates options exposure and activity in client accounts. A registered options principal must complete the NASD Series 4 exam in order to demonstrate sufficient knowledge of options and options trading.

He has a low ceiling of tolerance.他的容忍力很低[气量小]

Adjustable Rate Mortgage

ARM. A mortgage with an interest rate that may change, usually in response to changes in the Treasury Bill rate or the prime rate. The purpose of the interest rate adjustment is primarily to bring the interest rate on the mortgage in line with market rates. The mortgage holder is protected by a maximum interest rate (called a ceiling), which might be reset annually. ARMs usually start with better rates than fixed rate mortgages, in order to compensate the borrower for the additional risk that future interest rate fluctuations will create.

Exchange Traded Fund

ETF. A fund that tracks an index, but can be traded like a stock. ETFs always bundle together the securities that are in an index; they never track actively managed mutual fund portfolios (because most actively managed funds only disclose their holdings a few times a year, so the ETF would not know when to adjust its holdings most of the time). Investors can do just about anything with an ETF that they can do with a normal stock, such as short selling. Because ETFs are traded on stock exchanges, they can be bought and sold at any time during the day (unlike most mutual funds). Their price will fluctuate from moment to moment, just like any other stock's price, and an investor will need a broker in order to purchase them, which means that he/she will have to pay a commission. On the plus side, ETFs are more tax-efficient than normal mutual funds, and since they track indexes they have very low operating and transaction costs associated with them. There are no sales loads or investment minimums required to purchase an ETF. The first ETF created was the Standard and Poor's Deposit Receipt (SPDR, pronounced "Spider") in 1993. SPDRs gave investors an easy way to track the S&P 500 without buying an index fund, and they soon become quite popular.

Chicago Mercantile Exchange

CME. An exchange where financial futures, foreign currency futures, commodity futures, and futures options are traded. also called Merc.

theogony noun: The origin of gods or an account of this.
Etymology
From Greek theo- (god) + -gony (origin).
Usage
"The poet [Milton] sees the arrival of Christ in the world in terms of its impact on the pagan theogony." — A.N. Wilson; World of Books; The Daily Telegraph (London, UK); Dec 23, 2002.
Weekly theme:
What are combining forms? You can think of them as the Legos of language. As the name indicates, a combining form is a linguistic atom that occurs only in combination with some other form which could be a word, another combining form, or an affix (unlike a combining form, an affix can't attach to another affix).
This week we'll feature five words made using these combining forms:
theo- (god), oligo- (few), artio- (even number), helio- (sun), hagio- (saint)

oligopoly noun: A market condition where there are few sellers.
Etymology
From Greek oligo- (few) + -poly, patterned after monopoly, from polein (to sell).
Usage
"The country's fair trade regulator suggested Sunday that the long-standing oligopoly of a few gas companies should be phased out by allowing new providers to compete in the market." — Jane Han

artiodactyl adjective: Having an even number of toes on each foot.
Etymology
From Greek artio- (even in number, perfect) + -dactyl (toed, fingered).The mammal order Artiodactyla is made up of animals such as pig, camel, and giraffe. Those having an odd number of toes are called perissodactyl, from Greek perisso- (uneven, strange). Examples: horse, tapir, and rhinoceros.
Usage
"Joe Palca: By the way, you may not be aware that the pig is only the second artiodactyl to have its genome sequenced -- the cow came first." — Renee Montagne; Scientists Decode DNA of Domestic Pig; Morning Edition; National Public Radio (Washington, DC); Nov 2, 2009.

heliolatry noun: Worship of the sun.
Etymology
From Greek helio- (sun) + -latry (worship). A related word is heliotrope (a plant that turns toward the sun).
Usage
"Professor Frazer himself has warned that his vaccine is not an invitation to feckless heliolatry, stressing that any jab, no matter how effective, 'is not a replacement for prevention'." — Tamara Sheward; Browned Off by a Baking Fad; Herald-Sun (Melbourne, Australia); Jan 7, 2010.

hagiography noun:
1. A biography of a saint.
2. An uncritical biography, treating its subject with undue reverence.
Etymology
From Greek hagio- (holy) + -graphy (writing). A related word is hagiocracy (a government by holy persons; also a place thus governed).
Usage
"There's a whiff of hagiography in the sometimes sympathetic portrayal of the gang. But then, one man's terrorist..." — Tim Walker; The Baader-Meinhof Complex; The Independent (London, UK); Apr 17, 2009.

Annie Oakley noun: A complimentary ticket; pass.
Etymology
After
Annie Oakley (1860-1926), U.S. markswoman renowned for her skill at shooting, from association of the punched ticket with one of her bullet-riddled targets.
Usage
"If you're lucky, you've got an Annie Oakley." — Tom Rouillard; Big Top Goes Up Today; The Herald (Rock Hill, South Carolina); May 1, 1996.
Weekly theme
eponyms   (? Wordsmith.org) jobbernowl, illeist,

John Bull noun
1. A personification of England or the English people.
2. A typical Englishman.
Etymology
After John Bull, a character in
John Arbuthnot's satire, Law Is a Bottomless Pit (1712).
Usage
"Current historiography on the Mandate period is no longer dominated by a demonization of the British, which was a recurrent theme during the first decades of the state. Yet the disintegration of the old mythology is no reason to create a new mythology, this one a fantasy of John Bull in Palestine as a kind of disoriented Santa Claus, as in Segev's skewed account." — Anita Shapira; Eyeless in Zion; The New Republic (Washington, DC); Dec 11, 2000

Maginot line noun: An ineffective line of defense that is relied upon with undue confidence.
Etymology
After
André Maginot (1877-1932), French Minister of War, who proposed a line of defense along France's border with Germany. Believed to be impregnable, the barrier proved to be of little use when Germans attacked through Belgium in 1940.
Usage
"France has no shortage of linguistic generals who seek to regiment French and see an enemy lurking behind every new word or phrase. Yet what security do they bring? Franglais continues to infiltrate French ranks, despite a Maginot line of laws, word-vetting committees, and diktats from the Academie Francaise." — Ado Cherche Appart; The Economist (London); May 11, 1996.
"Absent some sober rethinking, forward engagement is likely to produce an American Maginot Line around Asia's rim, as myopic demands to stay there automatically lead to costly missile defenses." — Paul Bracken; America's Maginot Line; The Atlantic Monthly (Boston); Dec 1998.

daltonism noun: Color blindness, especially the inability to distinguish between red and green.
Etymology
After
John Dalton (1766-1844), chemist and physicist, who gave us Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures. He studied his own color blindness as well.
Usage
"Theodore R. Weeks refers to 'national daltonism: the extreme difficulty nationalists had... in perceiving and appreciating the viewpoints or needs of members of other nationalities." — Stephen D. Corrsin; Nation and State in Late Imperial Russia; Canadian Slavonic Papers (Ottawa); Sep-Dec 1999.

 

extemporaneous,extemporary,extempore,impromptu,offhand,unrehearsed,unpremeditated,ad-lib

These adjectives mean spoken, performed, done, or composed with little or no preparation or forethought.Extemporaneous, extemporary, and extempore most often apply to discourse, as a public speech, that is delivered without the assistance of a written text, though it may have been planned in advance:

这些形容词的意思是未经准备或构思而演讲的、表演的、进行的或谱写的。Extemporaneousextemporary extempore 常适用于演讲,如公共演说, 虽然这可能经过提前筹划但演讲时却不需书面材料的帮助:

an extemporaneous address;

即兴演说;

an extemporary lecture;

即兴讲座;

an extempore skit.

即兴小品。

Impromptu  even more strongly suggests action or expression that comes on the spur of the moment in response to an unforeseen need:

Impromptu  更强烈地表现对意料之外的需要所做出的相应的动作或表现:

an impromptu speech;

即席讲话;

an impromptu dinner.

便饭。

Offhand  implies not only spontaneity but also a casual or even cavalier manner:

Offhand  不但表示自发的,也表示不经意的甚至漫不经心的举止的:

an offhand remark. What is unrehearsed is said or done without rehearsal or practice though not necessarily without forethought:

随意的评论。 所谓unrehearsed,就是未经复述或练习就说或做的, 虽然没有不构思的必要:

a few unrehearsed comments.

未经练习的评论。

Unpremeditated  applies to action taken without prior thought or plan;often the term implies impulsiveness prompted by strong feeling:

Unpremeditated  表示未经提前思考或计划而采取的行动;这个词常表示在强烈情感的怂恿下而造成的冲动:

asked an unpremeditated question. Something that is ad-lib is spontaneous and improvised and therefore not part of a prepared script or score:

随口提出一个问题。 ad-lib 的事物是自发产生的和即兴而作的, 因而不是预先准备的手稿或记录的部分:

an ad-lib joke;

随口开的玩笑;

an ad-lib solo.

即兴的独奏


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